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Low prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance detected by a dried blood spot (DBS)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) method in newly diagnosed individuals in Cameroon in the years 2015-16


Mbunkah, Herbert A; Marzel, Alex; Schmutz, Stefan; Kok, Yik Lim; Zagordi, Osvaldo; Shilaih, Mohaned; Nsanwe, Ndi N; Mbu, Eyongetah T; Besong, Lydia M; Sama, Bella A; Orock, Emmanuel; Kouyos, Roger D; Günthard, Huldrych F; Metzner, Karin J (2018). Low prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance detected by a dried blood spot (DBS)-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) method in newly diagnosed individuals in Cameroon in the years 2015-16. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 73(7):1917-1929.

Abstract

Objectives To determine the most recent prevalence, transmission patterns and risk factors of transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRMs) in Cameroon, we initiated a multicentre study monitoring HIV-1 drug resistance in newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals using a novel next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay applicable to fingerprick dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Methods Fingerprick DBS samples and questionnaires were collected from 360 newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals in four hospitals in urban areas in Cameroon in the years 2015-16. We developed an HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance genotyping assay applicable to DBS samples and HIV-1 genomes of groups M, N and O. The WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of transmitted drug-resistant HIV strains was used to analyse TDRMs. Results Applying our 'DBS-NGS-genotypic resistance test', baseline HIV-1 drug resistance data were successfully obtained from 82.8% (298/360) of newly diagnosed individuals. At nucleotide frequencies >15%, TDRMs to NRTIs were observed in 3.0% (9/298), to NNRTIs in 4.0% (12/298) and to PIs in 1.3% (3/240). The NNRTI mutation K103N was most commonly detected (2.7%). Expanding the analysis to low-abundance TDRMs, i.e. 3%-15%, 12 additional individuals (4.0%) harbouring TDRMs were identified. Having unprotected sex with a known HIV-1-positive person was significantly associated with the transmission of DRMs (adjusted OR 9.6; 95% CI 1.79-51.3). Conclusions The prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is currently low in the study sites in Cameroon. Evidence of some risky sexual behaviours depicts a public health problem with possible implications for the prevention of new HIV-1 infections.

Abstract

Objectives To determine the most recent prevalence, transmission patterns and risk factors of transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRMs) in Cameroon, we initiated a multicentre study monitoring HIV-1 drug resistance in newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals using a novel next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay applicable to fingerprick dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Methods Fingerprick DBS samples and questionnaires were collected from 360 newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals in four hospitals in urban areas in Cameroon in the years 2015-16. We developed an HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase drug resistance genotyping assay applicable to DBS samples and HIV-1 genomes of groups M, N and O. The WHO 2009 list of mutations for surveillance of transmitted drug-resistant HIV strains was used to analyse TDRMs. Results Applying our 'DBS-NGS-genotypic resistance test', baseline HIV-1 drug resistance data were successfully obtained from 82.8% (298/360) of newly diagnosed individuals. At nucleotide frequencies >15%, TDRMs to NRTIs were observed in 3.0% (9/298), to NNRTIs in 4.0% (12/298) and to PIs in 1.3% (3/240). The NNRTI mutation K103N was most commonly detected (2.7%). Expanding the analysis to low-abundance TDRMs, i.e. 3%-15%, 12 additional individuals (4.0%) harbouring TDRMs were identified. Having unprotected sex with a known HIV-1-positive person was significantly associated with the transmission of DRMs (adjusted OR 9.6; 95% CI 1.79-51.3). Conclusions The prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance is currently low in the study sites in Cameroon. Evidence of some risky sexual behaviours depicts a public health problem with possible implications for the prevention of new HIV-1 infections.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Pharmacology (medical), Pharmacology, Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:7 April 2018
Deposited On:07 Jun 2018 06:40
Last Modified:19 Aug 2018 15:52
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0305-7453
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dky103
PubMed ID:29635462

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