The National Environment and Health Action Plans (NEHAPs) are a novel attempt to integrate environmental protection and health promotion in political programmes. Throughout Europe, about 40 NEHAPs have been developed so far. The Swiss NEHAP was among the first to be developed in an industrialised country. We discuss strength and weaknesses of the Swiss NEHAP and draw first conclusions on the development and implementation process of such programmes, illustrated by examples of other European NEHAPs. The strengths of the Swiss NEHAP lie in the formulation of specific targets in selected areas, its approach as a environmental health promotion programme, and its comprehensive evaluation. Weaknesses in most NEHAPs are the lack of involvement of the general public and of the economic sector, and the absence of an implementation strategy along with adequate financing.