Cardiovascular diseases are still the most important causes for morbidity and mortality in modern society. The importance of the early assessment of various cardiovascular risk factors and their control is crucial. Although the international recommendations are gender-specific, the following general recommendation on lipid screening may be formulated: in adults over 35 years, lipid screening should be performed occasionally. If there is an increased cardiovascular risk due to a specific risk constellation, a preventive lipid screening should be carried out already in 20- to 35-year-olds. The cardiovascular risk is calculated using the AGLA score (or other validated scores). Which lipid parameters should be determined for a screening? Initial lipid screening includes total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (directly measured or calculated), and triglycerides (ideally fasted). A recurring question is whether lipoprotein (a), Lp(a), should be measured and what the significance and consequences of elevated values are. In this CME, the present knowledge as well as recommendations about measurement, interpretation as well as therapy options of Lp(a) for the practicing physician are critically discussed.