The intake of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is known to increase several endogenous substances involved in steroid and inflammation pathways. Untargeted metabolomics screening approaches can determine biochemical changes after drug exposure and can reveal new pathways, which might be involved in the pharmacology and toxicology of a drug of abuse. We analyzed plasma samples from a placebo-controlled crossover study of a single intake of MDMA. Plasma samples from a time point before and three time points after the intake of a single dose of 125 mg MDMA were screened for changes of endogenous metabolites. An untargeted metabolomics approach on a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to liquid chromatography with two different chromatographic systems (reversed-phase and hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography) was applied. Over 10 000 features of the human metabolome were detected. Hence, 28 metabolites were identified, which showed significant changes after administration of MDMA compared with placebo. The analysis revealed an upregulation of cortisol and pregnenolone sulfate 4 h after MDMA intake, suggesting increased stress and serotonergic activity. Furthermore, calcitriol levels were decreased after the intake of MDMA. Calcitriol is involved in the upregulation of trophic factors, which have protective effects on brain dopamine neurons. The inflammation mediators hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, and octadecadienoic acid were found to be upregulated after the intake of MDMA compared with placebo, which suggested a stimulation of inflammation pathways.