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Evaluating the antibiotic susceptibility of chlamydia – new approaches for in vitro assays


Marti, Hanna; Borel, Nicole; Dean, Deborah; Leonard, Cory A (2018). Evaluating the antibiotic susceptibility of chlamydia – new approaches for in vitro assays. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9:1414.

Abstract

Pigs are the natural hosts of Chlamydia suis, the only Chlamydia species known to spontaneously acquire homotypic resistance conferred by a class C tetracycline resistance gene. Various susceptibility assays have existed for several years, but there is no widely accepted, standardized assay to determine chlamydial antibiotic susceptibility. In this study, we developed new approaches to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Chlamydia to different antibiotics in view of existing protocols. Specifically, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) is based on a consensus of both inclusion number reduction and alteration of inclusion size and morphology upon antibiotic exposure. In addition to these, we employed a recovery assay, allowing observation of the chlamydial response to drug removal and subsequent recovery, as compared to both continued exposure and to the unexposed control. We propose a simple and fast screening method to detect tetracycline resistant C. suis strains within 2 to 3 days with minimal use of consumables. For proof of principle, we evaluated the susceptibility of three C. suis field strains and the reference strain S45/6 to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and penicillin, antibiotics commonly used to prevent respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases on fattening pig farms. We found that tetracycline sensitive strains can easily be distinguished from resistant strains using the evaluation parameters proposed in this study. Moreover, we report that S45/6 is sensitive to sulfamethoxazole while all evaluated C. suis field strains showed some degree of sulfamethoxazole resistance. Finally, we confirm that Penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response in all evaluated C. suis strains.

Abstract

Pigs are the natural hosts of Chlamydia suis, the only Chlamydia species known to spontaneously acquire homotypic resistance conferred by a class C tetracycline resistance gene. Various susceptibility assays have existed for several years, but there is no widely accepted, standardized assay to determine chlamydial antibiotic susceptibility. In this study, we developed new approaches to determine the in vitro susceptibility of Chlamydia to different antibiotics in view of existing protocols. Specifically, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) is based on a consensus of both inclusion number reduction and alteration of inclusion size and morphology upon antibiotic exposure. In addition to these, we employed a recovery assay, allowing observation of the chlamydial response to drug removal and subsequent recovery, as compared to both continued exposure and to the unexposed control. We propose a simple and fast screening method to detect tetracycline resistant C. suis strains within 2 to 3 days with minimal use of consumables. For proof of principle, we evaluated the susceptibility of three C. suis field strains and the reference strain S45/6 to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and penicillin, antibiotics commonly used to prevent respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases on fattening pig farms. We found that tetracycline sensitive strains can easily be distinguished from resistant strains using the evaluation parameters proposed in this study. Moreover, we report that S45/6 is sensitive to sulfamethoxazole while all evaluated C. suis field strains showed some degree of sulfamethoxazole resistance. Finally, we confirm that Penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response in all evaluated C. suis strains.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Institute of Veterinary Pathology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Microbiology
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Chlamydia, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic susceptibility assay, minimal inhibitory concentration, new diagnostic approaches, recovery assay, resistance screen
Language:English
Date:3 July 2018
Deposited On:06 Aug 2018 14:36
Last Modified:08 Apr 2020 23:47
Publisher:Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN:1664-302X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01414
PubMed ID:30018602
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID323530_177579
  • : Project TitleUnderstanding the transmission mechanism of the tetracycline resistance gene C (tetC) in Chlamydia suis

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