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Shark and ray diversity in the Tropical America (Neotropics)—an examination of environmental and historical factors affecting diversity


Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Carrillo, Juan D; Aguilera, Orangel Antonio; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo R (2018). Shark and ray diversity in the Tropical America (Neotropics)—an examination of environmental and historical factors affecting diversity. PeerJ, 6:e5313.

Abstract

We present the first comprehensive review of the present and past shark and ray diversity in marine waters of Tropical America, examining the patterns of distribution in the Eastern Central Pacific (EP) and Western Central Atlantic (WA) realms. We identified the major regions of diversity and of endemism, and explored the relations to physical variables. We found a strong relationship between shark and ray diversity with area and coastal length of each province. The Tropical Northwestern Atlantic Province is characterized by high diversity and greater occurrence of endemic species, suggesting this province as the hotspot of sharks and rays in Tropical America. The historical background for the current biogeography is explored and analyzed. Referential data from 67 geological units in 17 countries, from both shallow and deep-water habitats, across five time-clusters from the Miocene to the Pleistocene were studied. New data include 20 new assemblages from six countries. The most diverse Neogene and extant groups of shark and ray are Carcharhiniformes and Myliobatiformes, respectively. The differentiation between Pacific and Atlantic faunas goes to at least the middle Miocene, probably related with the increasing closure of the Central American Seaway acting as a barrier. The highest faunal similarity between the assemblages from the EP and the WA at the early Miocene could be related to the lack of a barrier back then, but increased sampling is needed to substantiate this hypothesis.

Abstract

We present the first comprehensive review of the present and past shark and ray diversity in marine waters of Tropical America, examining the patterns of distribution in the Eastern Central Pacific (EP) and Western Central Atlantic (WA) realms. We identified the major regions of diversity and of endemism, and explored the relations to physical variables. We found a strong relationship between shark and ray diversity with area and coastal length of each province. The Tropical Northwestern Atlantic Province is characterized by high diversity and greater occurrence of endemic species, suggesting this province as the hotspot of sharks and rays in Tropical America. The historical background for the current biogeography is explored and analyzed. Referential data from 67 geological units in 17 countries, from both shallow and deep-water habitats, across five time-clusters from the Miocene to the Pleistocene were studied. New data include 20 new assemblages from six countries. The most diverse Neogene and extant groups of shark and ray are Carcharhiniformes and Myliobatiformes, respectively. The differentiation between Pacific and Atlantic faunas goes to at least the middle Miocene, probably related with the increasing closure of the Central American Seaway acting as a barrier. The highest faunal similarity between the assemblages from the EP and the WA at the early Miocene could be related to the lack of a barrier back then, but increased sampling is needed to substantiate this hypothesis.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Paleontological Institute and Museum
Dewey Decimal Classification:560 Fossils & prehistoric life
Uncontrolled Keywords:Chondrichthyans, Eastern Central Pacific, Fossils, Neogene, Western Central Atlantic
Language:English
Date:5 July 2018
Deposited On:07 Aug 2018 13:47
Last Modified:31 Aug 2018 23:51
Publisher:PeerJ, Ltd.
ISSN:2167-8359
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.5313
PubMed ID:30042900

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