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Pacing strategies by age in marathon cross-country skiing


Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Knechtle, Beat (2018). Pacing strategies by age in marathon cross-country skiing. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 46(3):367-373.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Pacing strategies have mainly been investigated for runners, but little is known for cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in pacing strategies do exist between younger and older cross-country skiers competing in the 42 km 'Engadin Ski Marathon'.
METHODS: Pacing was studied in 105,565 cross-country skiers (classified in 5-year age groups) competing between 1998 and 2016 in this race by examining changes of mean section velocity in 10 km (Change A, i.e. 100×(velocity in the 10-20 km section - velocity in the 0-10 km section)/velocity in the 0-10 km section), 20 km (Change B) and 35 km (Change C).
RESULTS: A small sex×distance (i.e. Change A versus Change B versus Change C) interaction on change of velocity was shown (P < .001, η = 0.016), with women showing a less even pacing than men. In women, there was a trivial main effect of age group on Change A (P < .001, η = 0.008) with a smaller decrease in velocity in age group <20 (-7.4%) and larger decrease in velocity in age group 75-79 (-12.8%), and Change B (P = .006, η = 0.004) with smaller increase in velocity in age group 75-79 (+30.6%) and larger increase in velocity in age group 40-44 (+37.7%), but not on Change C (P = .784, η = 0.003). In men, a small main effect of age group on Change A was shown (P < .001, η = 0.019), with a smaller decrease of velocity in age group <20 (-3.5%) and larger in age group 70-74 (-10.5%). Trivial main effects of age group on Change B (P < .001, η = .002), with a smaller increase of velocity in age group 85-89 (+25.8%) and larger increase in age group 70-74 (+33.0%), and Change C (P < .001, η = 0.003), with smaller decrease of velocity in age group 85-89 (-38.2%) and larger decrease in age group 80-84 (-41.0%), were found.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, it was concluded that men and young cross-country skiers had a more even pacing than women and older cross-country skiers, which was in contrast with previous findings in other endurance sports, suggesting that the sex- and age-related differences in pacing might be sport-dependent.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Pacing strategies have mainly been investigated for runners, but little is known for cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in pacing strategies do exist between younger and older cross-country skiers competing in the 42 km 'Engadin Ski Marathon'.
METHODS: Pacing was studied in 105,565 cross-country skiers (classified in 5-year age groups) competing between 1998 and 2016 in this race by examining changes of mean section velocity in 10 km (Change A, i.e. 100×(velocity in the 10-20 km section - velocity in the 0-10 km section)/velocity in the 0-10 km section), 20 km (Change B) and 35 km (Change C).
RESULTS: A small sex×distance (i.e. Change A versus Change B versus Change C) interaction on change of velocity was shown (P < .001, η = 0.016), with women showing a less even pacing than men. In women, there was a trivial main effect of age group on Change A (P < .001, η = 0.008) with a smaller decrease in velocity in age group <20 (-7.4%) and larger decrease in velocity in age group 75-79 (-12.8%), and Change B (P = .006, η = 0.004) with smaller increase in velocity in age group 75-79 (+30.6%) and larger increase in velocity in age group 40-44 (+37.7%), but not on Change C (P = .784, η = 0.003). In men, a small main effect of age group on Change A was shown (P < .001, η = 0.019), with a smaller decrease of velocity in age group <20 (-3.5%) and larger in age group 70-74 (-10.5%). Trivial main effects of age group on Change B (P < .001, η = .002), with a smaller increase of velocity in age group 85-89 (+25.8%) and larger increase in age group 70-74 (+33.0%), and Change C (P < .001, η = 0.003), with smaller decrease of velocity in age group 85-89 (-38.2%) and larger decrease in age group 80-84 (-41.0%), were found.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on these findings, it was concluded that men and young cross-country skiers had a more even pacing than women and older cross-country skiers, which was in contrast with previous findings in other endurance sports, suggesting that the sex- and age-related differences in pacing might be sport-dependent.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of General Practice
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
Health Sciences > Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
Uncontrolled Keywords:Aging, endurance, master athlete, sex difference, winter sport
Language:English
Date:24 January 2018
Deposited On:07 Aug 2018 14:06
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 07:27
Publisher:Informa Healthcare
ISSN:0091-3847
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.2018.1430450
PubMed ID:29345960

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