Adjustment disorders (AjDs) usually resolve after the precipitating life event and its consequences are terminated. However, they bear the risk for the development of severe mental illness. The present study investigates the natural course of AjD as defined for International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11). A total of 303 individuals who involuntarily lost their jobs were assessed initially after the job loss and 6 months later. Latent class latent change analysis and multinomial logistic regression were performed. Two groups showed low (n = 149, 49.2%) and medium (n = 108, 35.6%) symptom severity at initial assessment that declined over time. The third group (n = 46, 15.2%) showed a high initial response and a small effect of worsening of symptoms. Female gender, higher age, first dismissal, impaired social functioning, dysfunctional disclosure, less social support, and less social acknowledgment were associated with belonging to the latter group. It might be beneficial to target individuals at high risk with interventions that aim at the improvement of skills relevant for stress management.