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The neogene record of Northern South American Native Ungulates


Carrillo, Juan D; Amson, Eli; Jaramillo, Carlos; Sánchez, Rodolfo; Quiroz, Luis; Cuartas, Carlos; Rincón, Aldo F; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R (2018). The neogene record of Northern South American Native Ungulates. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology, (101):iv-67.

Abstract

South America was isolated during most of the Cenozoic, and it was home to an endemic fauna. The South American Native Ungulates (SANUs) exhibited high taxonomical, morphological, and ecological diversity and were widely distributed on the continent. However, most SANU fossil records come from high latitudes. This sampling bias challenges the study of their diversity dynamics and biogeography during important tectonic and biotic events, such as the Great American Biotic Interchange, the faunal exchange between North and South America after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. We describe new SANU remains from the Neogene of the Cocinetas (northern Colombia) and Falcón (northwestern Venezuela) Basins. In the Cocinetas Basin, the middle Miocene fauna of the Castilletes Formation includes Hilarcotherium miyou sp. nov. (Astrapotheriidae), cf. Huilatherium (Leontiniidae), and Lambdaconus cf. L. colombianus (Proterotheriidae). The late Pliocene fauna of the Ware Formation includes a Toxodontinae indet. and the putative oldest record of Camelidae in South America. In the Falcón Basin, the Pliocene/Pleistocene faunas of the Codore and San Gregorio Formations include Falcontoxodon aguilerai gen. et sp. nov. and Proterotheriidae indet. We provide a phylogenetic analysis for Astrapotheriidae and Toxodontidae. The new data document a low-latitude provinciality within some SANU clades (e.g., Astrapotheriidae, Leontiniidae) during the middle Miocene. This contrasts with the wide latitudinal distribution of clades of other mammals recorded in the fauna, including the sparassodont Lycopsis padillai, the sloth Hyperleptus?, and the proterotheriid Lambdaconus cf. L. colombianus. The Pliocene/Pleistocene tropical faunas from northern South America are characterized by the predominance of native taxa despite their proximity
to the Isthmus of Panama (fully emerged by that time). Only one North American ungulate herbivore immigrant is present, a cf. Camelidae indet. The Pliocene and early Pleistocene faunas suggest that environmental changes and biotic interactions affected the diversity dynamics and biogeographic patterns of SANUs during the Great American Biotic Interchange.
Cover image: Detail from Figure 34, life reconstruction of the Ware Formation faunal assemblage, Cocinetas Basin, Colombia, by Stjepan Lukac.

Abstract

South America was isolated during most of the Cenozoic, and it was home to an endemic fauna. The South American Native Ungulates (SANUs) exhibited high taxonomical, morphological, and ecological diversity and were widely distributed on the continent. However, most SANU fossil records come from high latitudes. This sampling bias challenges the study of their diversity dynamics and biogeography during important tectonic and biotic events, such as the Great American Biotic Interchange, the faunal exchange between North and South America after the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. We describe new SANU remains from the Neogene of the Cocinetas (northern Colombia) and Falcón (northwestern Venezuela) Basins. In the Cocinetas Basin, the middle Miocene fauna of the Castilletes Formation includes Hilarcotherium miyou sp. nov. (Astrapotheriidae), cf. Huilatherium (Leontiniidae), and Lambdaconus cf. L. colombianus (Proterotheriidae). The late Pliocene fauna of the Ware Formation includes a Toxodontinae indet. and the putative oldest record of Camelidae in South America. In the Falcón Basin, the Pliocene/Pleistocene faunas of the Codore and San Gregorio Formations include Falcontoxodon aguilerai gen. et sp. nov. and Proterotheriidae indet. We provide a phylogenetic analysis for Astrapotheriidae and Toxodontidae. The new data document a low-latitude provinciality within some SANU clades (e.g., Astrapotheriidae, Leontiniidae) during the middle Miocene. This contrasts with the wide latitudinal distribution of clades of other mammals recorded in the fauna, including the sparassodont Lycopsis padillai, the sloth Hyperleptus?, and the proterotheriid Lambdaconus cf. L. colombianus. The Pliocene/Pleistocene tropical faunas from northern South America are characterized by the predominance of native taxa despite their proximity
to the Isthmus of Panama (fully emerged by that time). Only one North American ungulate herbivore immigrant is present, a cf. Camelidae indet. The Pliocene and early Pleistocene faunas suggest that environmental changes and biotic interactions affected the diversity dynamics and biogeographic patterns of SANUs during the Great American Biotic Interchange.
Cover image: Detail from Figure 34, life reconstruction of the Ware Formation faunal assemblage, Cocinetas Basin, Colombia, by Stjepan Lukac.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Paleontological Institute and Museum
Dewey Decimal Classification:560 Fossils & prehistoric life
Language:English
Date:27 July 2018
Deposited On:21 Aug 2018 17:07
Last Modified:29 Mar 2019 11:32
Publisher:Smithsonian Institution Press
ISSN:0081-0266
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.5479/si.1943-6688.101
Related URLs:https://opensi.si.edu/index.php/smithsonian/catalog/book/172 (Publisher)

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