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The Inhomogeneous Reionization Times of Present-day Galaxies


Aubert, Dominique; Deparis, Nicolas; Ocvirk, Pierre; Shapiro, Paul R; Iliev, Ilian T; Yepes, Gustavo; Gottlöber, Stefan; Hoffman, Yehuda; Teyssier, Romain (2018). The Inhomogeneous Reionization Times of Present-day Galaxies. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 856(2):L22.

Abstract

Today's galaxies experienced cosmic reionization at different times in different locations. For the first time, reionization (50% ionized) redshifts, z R , at the location of their progenitors are derived from new, fully coupled radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation and reionization at z > 6, matched to N-body simulation to z = 0. Constrained initial conditions were chosen to form the well-known structures of the local universe, including the Local Group and Virgo, in a (91 Mpc)3 volume large enough to model both global and local reionization. Reionization simulation CoDa I-AMR, by CPU-GPU code EMMA, used (2048)3 particles and (2048)3 initial cells, adaptively refined, while N-body simulation CoDa I-DM2048, by Gadget2, used (2048)3 particles, to find reionization times for all galaxies at z = 0 with masses M(z = 0) ≥ 108 M ⊙. Galaxies with $M(z=0)\gtrsim {10}^{11}\,{M}_{\odot }$ reionized earlier than the universe as a whole, by up to ~500 Myr, with significant scatter. For Milky Way–like galaxies, z R ranged from 8 to 15. Galaxies with $M(z=0)\lesssim {10}^{11}\,{M}_{\odot }$ typically reionized as late or later than globally averaged 50% reionization at $\langle {z}_{R}\rangle =7.8$, in neighborhoods where reionization was completed by external radiation. The spread of reionization times within galaxies was sometimes as large as the galaxy-to-galaxy scatter. The Milky Way and M31 reionized earlier than global reionization but later than typical for their mass, neither dominated by external radiation. Their most-massive progenitors at z > 6 had z R =9.8 (MW) and 11 (M31), while their total masses had z R = 8.2 (both).

Abstract

Today's galaxies experienced cosmic reionization at different times in different locations. For the first time, reionization (50% ionized) redshifts, z R , at the location of their progenitors are derived from new, fully coupled radiation-hydrodynamics simulation of galaxy formation and reionization at z > 6, matched to N-body simulation to z = 0. Constrained initial conditions were chosen to form the well-known structures of the local universe, including the Local Group and Virgo, in a (91 Mpc)3 volume large enough to model both global and local reionization. Reionization simulation CoDa I-AMR, by CPU-GPU code EMMA, used (2048)3 particles and (2048)3 initial cells, adaptively refined, while N-body simulation CoDa I-DM2048, by Gadget2, used (2048)3 particles, to find reionization times for all galaxies at z = 0 with masses M(z = 0) ≥ 108 M ⊙. Galaxies with $M(z=0)\gtrsim {10}^{11}\,{M}_{\odot }$ reionized earlier than the universe as a whole, by up to ~500 Myr, with significant scatter. For Milky Way–like galaxies, z R ranged from 8 to 15. Galaxies with $M(z=0)\lesssim {10}^{11}\,{M}_{\odot }$ typically reionized as late or later than globally averaged 50% reionization at $\langle {z}_{R}\rangle =7.8$, in neighborhoods where reionization was completed by external radiation. The spread of reionization times within galaxies was sometimes as large as the galaxy-to-galaxy scatter. The Milky Way and M31 reionized earlier than global reionization but later than typical for their mass, neither dominated by external radiation. Their most-massive progenitors at z > 6 had z R =9.8 (MW) and 11 (M31), while their total masses had z R = 8.2 (both).

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Institute for Computational Science
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:01 Mar 2019 14:36
Last Modified:17 Sep 2019 19:25
Publisher:IOP Publishing
ISSN:2041-8205
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/aab14d

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