Modern Management of Pituitary Adenomas - Current State of Diagnosis, Treatment and Follow-Up Abstract. Pituitary adenomas (PA) are benign neoplasms originating from parenchymal cells of the anterior pituitary. Tumor mass effect can cause headaches, visual deficits by compression of the optic chiasm, and partial or complete hypopituitarism. Hormone secreting PA can cause several forms of specific syndromes such as Cushing's disease or acromegaly depending on the type of hormone. Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection is the preferred treatment option for most symptomatic or growing PA. Nowadays techniques like high definition intraoperative MRI can assist the surgeon in his goal of maximal safe resection. An exception are prolactinomas which can usually be treated medically with dopamine agonists. Therapy of PA is complex and should be managed in a high-volume center with an interdisciplinary team approach including neurosurgeons and endocrinologists.