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Cerebral venous thrombosis requiring invasive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure in women with combined hormonal contraceptive intake: risk factors, anatomical distribution, and clinical presentation


Roethlisberger, Michel; Gut, Lara; Zumofen, Daniel Walter; Fisch, Urs; Boss, Oliver; Maldaner, Nicolai; Croci, Davide Marco; Taub, Ethan; Corti, Natascia; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Guzman, Raphael; Bozinov, Oliver; Mariani, Luigi (2018). Cerebral venous thrombosis requiring invasive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure in women with combined hormonal contraceptive intake: risk factors, anatomical distribution, and clinical presentation. Neurosurgical Focus, 45(1):E12.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Women taking combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) are generally considered to be at low risk for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). When it does occur, however, intensive care and neurosurgical management may, in rare cases, be needed for the control of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). The use of nonsurgical strategies such as barbiturate coma and induced hypothermia has never been reported in this context. The objective of this study is to determine predictive factors for invasive or surgical ICP treatment and the potential complications of nonsurgical strategies in this population. METHODS The authors conducted a 2-center, retrospective chart review of 168 cases of CVT in women between 2000 and 2012. Eligible patients were classified as having had a mild or a severe clinical course, the latter category including all patients who underwent invasive or surgical ICP treatment and all who had an unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3 or Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤ 3). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for continuous parameters and Fisher's exact test for categorical parameters, and odds ratios were calculated with statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS Of the 168 patients, 57 (age range 16-49 years) were determined to be eligible for the study. Six patients (10.5%) required invasive or surgical ICP treatment. Three patients (5.3%) developed refractory ICP > 30 mm Hg despite early surgical decompression; 2 of them (3.5%) were treated with barbiturate coma and induced hypothermia, with documented infectious, thromboembolic, and hemorrhagic complications. Coma on admission, thrombosis of the deep venous system with consecutive hydrocephalus, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hemorrhagic venous infarction were associated with a higher frequency of surgical intervention. Coma, quadriparesis on admission, and hydrocephalus were more commonly seen among women with unfavorable outcomes. Thrombosis of the transverse sinus was less common in patients with an unfavorable outcome, with similar distribution in patients needing invasive or surgical ICP treatment. CONCLUSIONS The need for invasive or surgical ICP treatment in women taking CHCs who have CVT is partly predictable on the basis of the clinical and radiological findings on admission. The use of nonsurgical treatments for refractory ICP, such as barbiturate coma and induced hypothermia, is associated with systemic infectious and hematological complications and may worsen morbidity in this patient population. The significance of these factors should be studied in larger multicenter cohorts.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Women taking combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) are generally considered to be at low risk for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). When it does occur, however, intensive care and neurosurgical management may, in rare cases, be needed for the control of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). The use of nonsurgical strategies such as barbiturate coma and induced hypothermia has never been reported in this context. The objective of this study is to determine predictive factors for invasive or surgical ICP treatment and the potential complications of nonsurgical strategies in this population. METHODS The authors conducted a 2-center, retrospective chart review of 168 cases of CVT in women between 2000 and 2012. Eligible patients were classified as having had a mild or a severe clinical course, the latter category including all patients who underwent invasive or surgical ICP treatment and all who had an unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3 or Glasgow Outcome Scale score ≤ 3). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for continuous parameters and Fisher's exact test for categorical parameters, and odds ratios were calculated with statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS Of the 168 patients, 57 (age range 16-49 years) were determined to be eligible for the study. Six patients (10.5%) required invasive or surgical ICP treatment. Three patients (5.3%) developed refractory ICP > 30 mm Hg despite early surgical decompression; 2 of them (3.5%) were treated with barbiturate coma and induced hypothermia, with documented infectious, thromboembolic, and hemorrhagic complications. Coma on admission, thrombosis of the deep venous system with consecutive hydrocephalus, intraventricular hemorrhage, and hemorrhagic venous infarction were associated with a higher frequency of surgical intervention. Coma, quadriparesis on admission, and hydrocephalus were more commonly seen among women with unfavorable outcomes. Thrombosis of the transverse sinus was less common in patients with an unfavorable outcome, with similar distribution in patients needing invasive or surgical ICP treatment. CONCLUSIONS The need for invasive or surgical ICP treatment in women taking CHCs who have CVT is partly predictable on the basis of the clinical and radiological findings on admission. The use of nonsurgical treatments for refractory ICP, such as barbiturate coma and induced hypothermia, is associated with systemic infectious and hematological complications and may worsen morbidity in this patient population. The significance of these factors should be studied in larger multicenter cohorts.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neurosurgery
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:CHC = combined hormonal contraceptive, CVT = cerebral venous thrombosis, GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale, GOS = Glasgow Outcome Scale, ICP = intracranial pressure, barbiturate coma, cerebral venous thrombosis, combined hormonal contraceptive intake, decompressive surgery, induced hypothermia, intracranial pressure, mRS = modified Rankin Scale
Language:English
Date:July 2018
Deposited On:24 Aug 2018 16:54
Last Modified:07 May 2019 11:50
Publisher:American Association of Neurological Surgeons
ISSN:1092-0684
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.3171/2018.4.FOCUS1891
PubMed ID:29961388

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