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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with GATA2 deficiency-a case report and comprehensive review of the literature


Simonis, Alexander; Fux, Michaela; Nair, Gayathri; Mueller, Nicolas J; Haralambieva, Eugenia; Pabst, Thomas; Pachlopnik Schmid, Jana; Schmidt, Adrian; Schanz, Urs; Manz, Markus G; Müller, Antonia M S (2018). Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with GATA2 deficiency-a case report and comprehensive review of the literature. Annals of Hematology, 97(10):1961-1973.

Abstract

Recently, an immunodeficiency syndrome caused by guanine-adenine-thymine-adenine 2 (GATA2) deficiency has been described. The syndrome is characterized by (i) typical onset in early adulthood, (ii) profound peripheral blood cytopenias of monocytes, B lymphocytes, and NK cells, (iii) distinct susceptibility to disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) and other opportunistic infections (particularly human papillomavirus), and (iv) a high risk of developing hematologic malignancies (myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); acute myeloid leukemias (AML)). Considerable clinical heterogeneity exists among patients with GATA2 deficiency, but once infectious symptoms occur or MDS/AML arises, survival declines significantly. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) currently provides the only curative treatment option for both MDS/AML and dysfunctional immunity with life-threatening opportunistic infections. Strategies regarding timing of allogeneic HCT, antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment, intensity of the preparative regimen, and optimal donor and graft source have not been clearly defined due to the rarity of the disease. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the available literature and published case reports on the use of allogeneic HCT in patients with GATA2 deficiency. In addition, a case of a young woman with GATA2 deficiency, who developed an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in her mycobacterial skin lesions post allogeneic HCT is presented and illustrates distinct problems encountered in this disease context.

Abstract

Recently, an immunodeficiency syndrome caused by guanine-adenine-thymine-adenine 2 (GATA2) deficiency has been described. The syndrome is characterized by (i) typical onset in early adulthood, (ii) profound peripheral blood cytopenias of monocytes, B lymphocytes, and NK cells, (iii) distinct susceptibility to disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) and other opportunistic infections (particularly human papillomavirus), and (iv) a high risk of developing hematologic malignancies (myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); acute myeloid leukemias (AML)). Considerable clinical heterogeneity exists among patients with GATA2 deficiency, but once infectious symptoms occur or MDS/AML arises, survival declines significantly. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) currently provides the only curative treatment option for both MDS/AML and dysfunctional immunity with life-threatening opportunistic infections. Strategies regarding timing of allogeneic HCT, antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment, intensity of the preparative regimen, and optimal donor and graft source have not been clearly defined due to the rarity of the disease. Here, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the available literature and published case reports on the use of allogeneic HCT in patients with GATA2 deficiency. In addition, a case of a young woman with GATA2 deficiency, who developed an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in her mycobacterial skin lesions post allogeneic HCT is presented and illustrates distinct problems encountered in this disease context.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Oncology and Hematology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology
04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Infectious Diseases
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:October 2018
Deposited On:03 Sep 2018 11:09
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 23:35
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0939-5555
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00277-018-3388-4
PubMed ID:29947977

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