Optimizing the patient’s condition before the lung volume reduction (LVR) according to recommendations by American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation is mandatory. Implementation of a multimodal analgesia concept and the use short-acting anaesthetics enhances recovery and avoids postoperative pulmonary complications. Normovolemia, normothermia, lung protective ventilation and an evidence-based concept of airway management (i.e., double-lumen tube, bronchus blocker) are suggested for intraoperative management of surgical lung volume reduction (SLVR). General anaesthesia (using remifentanil, propofol and mivacurium) with an i-gel® supraglottic airway device should be used for bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR). Jet ventilation through rigid bronchoscopy or with a jet catheter may be an alternative concept. Experienced consultants should perform anaesthesia for LVR.