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Rapid coupling between gravitational forces and the transcriptome in human myelomonocytic U937 cells


Thiel, Cora S; Tauber, Svantje; Christoffel, Swantje; Huge, Andreas; Lauber, Beatrice A; Polzer, Jennifer; Paulsen, Katrin; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Schmitz, Burkhard; Schütte, Andreas; Raig, Christiane; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver (2018). Rapid coupling between gravitational forces and the transcriptome in human myelomonocytic U937 cells. Scientific Reports, 8(1):13267.

Abstract

The gravitational force has been constant throughout Earth’s evolutionary history. Since the cell nucleus is subjected to permanent forces induced by Earth’s gravity, we addressed the question, if gene expression homeostasis is constantly shaped by the gravitational force on Earth. We therefore investigated the transcriptome in force-free conditions of microgravity, determined the time frame of initial gravitational force-transduction to the transcriptome and assessed the role of cation channels. We combined a parabolic flight experiment campaign with a suborbital ballistic rocket experiment employing the human myelomonocytic cell line U937 and analyzed the whole gene transcription by microarray, using rigorous controls for exclusion of effects not related to gravitational force and cross-validation through two fully independent research campaigns. Experiments with the wide range ion channel inhibitor SKF-96365 in combination with whole transcriptome analysis were conducted to study the functional role of ion channels in the transduction of gravitational forces at an integrative level. We detected profound alterations in the transcriptome already after 20 s of microgravity or hypergravity. In microgravity, 99.43% of all initially altered transcripts adapted after 5 min. In hypergravity, 98.93% of all initially altered transcripts adapted after 75 s. Only 2.4% of all microgravity-regulated transcripts were sensitive to the cation channel inhibitor SKF-96365. Inter-platform comparison of differentially regulated transcripts revealed 57 annotated gravity-sensitive transcripts. We assume that gravitational forces are rapidly and constantly transduced into the nucleus as omnipresent condition for nuclear and chromatin structure as well as homeostasis of gene expression.

Abstract

The gravitational force has been constant throughout Earth’s evolutionary history. Since the cell nucleus is subjected to permanent forces induced by Earth’s gravity, we addressed the question, if gene expression homeostasis is constantly shaped by the gravitational force on Earth. We therefore investigated the transcriptome in force-free conditions of microgravity, determined the time frame of initial gravitational force-transduction to the transcriptome and assessed the role of cation channels. We combined a parabolic flight experiment campaign with a suborbital ballistic rocket experiment employing the human myelomonocytic cell line U937 and analyzed the whole gene transcription by microarray, using rigorous controls for exclusion of effects not related to gravitational force and cross-validation through two fully independent research campaigns. Experiments with the wide range ion channel inhibitor SKF-96365 in combination with whole transcriptome analysis were conducted to study the functional role of ion channels in the transduction of gravitational forces at an integrative level. We detected profound alterations in the transcriptome already after 20 s of microgravity or hypergravity. In microgravity, 99.43% of all initially altered transcripts adapted after 5 min. In hypergravity, 98.93% of all initially altered transcripts adapted after 75 s. Only 2.4% of all microgravity-regulated transcripts were sensitive to the cation channel inhibitor SKF-96365. Inter-platform comparison of differentially regulated transcripts revealed 57 annotated gravity-sensitive transcripts. We assume that gravitational forces are rapidly and constantly transduced into the nucleus as omnipresent condition for nuclear and chromatin structure as well as homeostasis of gene expression.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Anatomy
04 Faculty of Medicine > Center for Integrative Human Physiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:5 September 2018
Deposited On:12 Sep 2018 14:45
Last Modified:30 Sep 2018 23:59
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:2045-2322
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31596-y
PubMed ID:30185876

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