The prognostic factors and outcome of 58 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (AR-DLBCL) patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, diagnosed from 2004 to 2011, were compared with those of 326 immunocompetent (IC)-DLBCL from the Hematology Division of the Amedeo Avogadro University (Italy) and the Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland. Median follow-up was 6 years; 5-year overall survival (OS) was 68% (95% CI: 63%-73%) in IC-DLBCL and 63% (95% CI: 49%-75%) in AR-DLBCL (P = .220). The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma international prognostic index predicted OS in AR-DLBCL. Among 148 patients younger than 61 years (40 AR-DLBCL and 108 IC-DLBCL) treated with RCHOP/RCHOP-like regimens, 20 IC-DLBCL and 9 AR-DLBCL patients died and OS was not significantly different. A higher proportion of early deaths occurred in the AR-DLBCL: indeed, 1-year OS was 94% (95% CI: 87%-97%) in IC-DLBCL and 82% (95% CI: 66%-91%) in AR-DLBCL patients. After rituximab and active antiretroviral therapy introduction, AR-DLBCL and IC-DLBCL patients treated with curative intent have similar long-term survival.