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DEGUM, ÖGUM, SGUM and FMF Germany Recommendations for the Implementation of First-Trimester Screening, Detailed Ultrasound, Cell-Free DNA Screening and Diagnostic Procedures


Kozlowski, Peter; Burkhardt, Tilo; Gembruch, Ulrich; Gonser, Markus; Kähler, Christiane; Kagan, Karl-Oliver; von Kaisenberg, Constantin; Klaritsch, Philipp; Merz, Eberhard; Steiner, Horst; Tercanli, Sevgi; Vetter, Klaus; Schramm, Thomas (2019). DEGUM, ÖGUM, SGUM and FMF Germany Recommendations for the Implementation of First-Trimester Screening, Detailed Ultrasound, Cell-Free DNA Screening and Diagnostic Procedures. Ultraschall in der Medizin, 40(02):176-193.

Abstract

First-trimester screening between 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks with qualified prenatal counseling, detailed ultrasound, biochemical markers and maternal factors has become the basis for decisions about further examinations. It detects numerous structural and genetic anomalies. The inclusion of uterine artery Doppler and PlGF screens for preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Low-dose aspirin significantly reduces the prevalence of severe preterm eclampsia. Cut-off values define groups of high, intermediate and low probability. Prenatal counseling uses detection and false-positive rates to work out the individual need profile and the corresponding decision: no further diagnosis/screening - cell-free DNA screening - diagnostic procedure and genetic analysis. In pre-test counseling it must be recognized that the prevalence of trisomy 21, 18 or 13 is low in younger women, as in submicroscopic anomalies in every maternal age. Even with high specificities, the positive predictive values of screening tests for rare anomalies are low. In the general population trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies account for approximately 70 % of anomalies recognizable by conventional genetic analysis. Screen positive results of cfDNA tests have to be proven by diagnostic procedure and genetic diagnosis. In cases of inconclusive results a higher rate of genetic anomalies is detected. Procedure-related fetal loss rates after chorionic biopsy and amniocentesis performed by experts are lower than 1 to 2 in 1000. Counseling should include the possible detection of submicroscopic anomalies by comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). At present, existing studies about screening for microdeletions and duplications do not provide reliable data to calculate sensitivities, false-positive rates and positive predictive values.

Abstract

First-trimester screening between 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks with qualified prenatal counseling, detailed ultrasound, biochemical markers and maternal factors has become the basis for decisions about further examinations. It detects numerous structural and genetic anomalies. The inclusion of uterine artery Doppler and PlGF screens for preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Low-dose aspirin significantly reduces the prevalence of severe preterm eclampsia. Cut-off values define groups of high, intermediate and low probability. Prenatal counseling uses detection and false-positive rates to work out the individual need profile and the corresponding decision: no further diagnosis/screening - cell-free DNA screening - diagnostic procedure and genetic analysis. In pre-test counseling it must be recognized that the prevalence of trisomy 21, 18 or 13 is low in younger women, as in submicroscopic anomalies in every maternal age. Even with high specificities, the positive predictive values of screening tests for rare anomalies are low. In the general population trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies account for approximately 70 % of anomalies recognizable by conventional genetic analysis. Screen positive results of cfDNA tests have to be proven by diagnostic procedure and genetic diagnosis. In cases of inconclusive results a higher rate of genetic anomalies is detected. Procedure-related fetal loss rates after chorionic biopsy and amniocentesis performed by experts are lower than 1 to 2 in 1000. Counseling should include the possible detection of submicroscopic anomalies by comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). At present, existing studies about screening for microdeletions and duplications do not provide reliable data to calculate sensitivities, false-positive rates and positive predictive values.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Obstetrics
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:13 Sep 2018 11:27
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 23:36
Publisher:Georg Thieme Verlag
ISSN:0172-4614
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1055/a-0631-8898
PubMed ID:30001568

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