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Molecular biology of glutathione peroxidase 4: from genomic structure to developmental expression and neural function


Savaskan, Nicolai E; Ufer, Christoph; Kühn, Hartmut; Borchert, Astrid (2007). Molecular biology of glutathione peroxidase 4: from genomic structure to developmental expression and neural function. Biological Chemistry, 388(10):1007-1017.

Abstract

Selenoproteins have been recognized as modulators of brain function and signaling. Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4/PHGPx) is a unique member of the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases in mammals with a pivotal role in brain development and function. GPx4 exists as a cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear isoform derived from a single gene. In mice, the GPx4 gene is located on chromosome 10 in close proximity to a functional retrotransposome that is expressed under the control of captured regulatory elements. Elucidation of crystallographic data uncovered structural peculiarities of GPx4 that provide the molecular basis for its unique enzymatic properties and substrate specificity. Monomeric GPx4 is multifunctional: it acts as a reducing enzyme of peroxidized phospholipids and thiols and as a structural protein. Transcriptional regulation of the different GPx4 isoforms requires several isoform-specific cis-regulatory sequences and trans-activating factors. Cytosolic and mitochondrial GPx4 are the major isoforms exclusively expressed by neurons in the developing brain. In stark contrast, following brain trauma, GPx4 is specifically upregulated in non-neuronal cells, i.e., reactive astrocytes. Molecular approaches to genetic modification in mice have revealed an essential and isoform-specific function for GPx4 in development and disease. Here we review recent findings on GPx4 with emphasis on its molecular structure and function and consider potential mechanisms that underlie neural development and neuropathological conditions

Abstract

Selenoproteins have been recognized as modulators of brain function and signaling. Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4/PHGPx) is a unique member of the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidases in mammals with a pivotal role in brain development and function. GPx4 exists as a cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear isoform derived from a single gene. In mice, the GPx4 gene is located on chromosome 10 in close proximity to a functional retrotransposome that is expressed under the control of captured regulatory elements. Elucidation of crystallographic data uncovered structural peculiarities of GPx4 that provide the molecular basis for its unique enzymatic properties and substrate specificity. Monomeric GPx4 is multifunctional: it acts as a reducing enzyme of peroxidized phospholipids and thiols and as a structural protein. Transcriptional regulation of the different GPx4 isoforms requires several isoform-specific cis-regulatory sequences and trans-activating factors. Cytosolic and mitochondrial GPx4 are the major isoforms exclusively expressed by neurons in the developing brain. In stark contrast, following brain trauma, GPx4 is specifically upregulated in non-neuronal cells, i.e., reactive astrocytes. Molecular approaches to genetic modification in mice have revealed an essential and isoform-specific function for GPx4 in development and disease. Here we review recent findings on GPx4 with emphasis on its molecular structure and function and consider potential mechanisms that underlie neural development and neuropathological conditions

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:540 Chemistry
Language:English
Date:1 January 2007
Deposited On:22 Oct 2018 16:37
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 23:39
Publisher:De Gruyter
ISSN:1431-6730
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1515/bc.2007.126
Related URLs:https://www.swissbib.ch/Search/Results?lookfor=nationallicencegruyter101515BC2007126 (Library Catalogue)
PubMed ID:17937614

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