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Sensitive Detection and Early Prognostic Significance of p24 Antigen in Heat-Denatured Plasma of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Infants


Schupbach, J; Doni, J; Tomasik, Z; Jendis, J; Seger, R; Kind, C (1994). Sensitive Detection and Early Prognostic Significance of p24 Antigen in Heat-Denatured Plasma of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Infants. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 170(2):318-324.

Abstract

Immune complex formation causes underdetection of p24 antigen in human immunodeficiencyvirus(HIV)infection.Brieflyboilingdilutedplasma releasesallcomplexedantigen, which can then be measured by some commercial assays. In a retrospective pediatric cohort study, the specificity of this procedure in 390 uninfected samples was 96.9% after initial testing and 100% after neutralization. Sensitivity among 125 postnatal infected samples was, at a detection of 2 pg/ml., 96.0% (97% neutralizable) compared with 47.7% for regular antigen (76% neutralizable), 96% for polymerase chain reaction, and 77% for viral culture. The high sensitivity and specificity of heat-denatured antigen was confirmed by prospectively testing 113 additional samples.Quantitativeanalysisofsamplesfrominfectedinfants showedlowlevelsofp24 antigen in 29% of cord blood sera, a postnatal increase to levels that were during the first 6 months of life inversely associated with survival, and persistence of antigenemia thereafter independent of clinical status. Prevalence and antigen levels were significantly lower in mothers. The persistent antigenemia in children indicates that their immune systems cannot restrict HIV expression as efficiently as those of adults

Abstract

Immune complex formation causes underdetection of p24 antigen in human immunodeficiencyvirus(HIV)infection.Brieflyboilingdilutedplasma releasesallcomplexedantigen, which can then be measured by some commercial assays. In a retrospective pediatric cohort study, the specificity of this procedure in 390 uninfected samples was 96.9% after initial testing and 100% after neutralization. Sensitivity among 125 postnatal infected samples was, at a detection of 2 pg/ml., 96.0% (97% neutralizable) compared with 47.7% for regular antigen (76% neutralizable), 96% for polymerase chain reaction, and 77% for viral culture. The high sensitivity and specificity of heat-denatured antigen was confirmed by prospectively testing 113 additional samples.Quantitativeanalysisofsamplesfrominfectedinfants showedlowlevelsofp24 antigen in 29% of cord blood sera, a postnatal increase to levels that were during the first 6 months of life inversely associated with survival, and persistence of antigenemia thereafter independent of clinical status. Prevalence and antigen levels were significantly lower in mothers. The persistent antigenemia in children indicates that their immune systems cannot restrict HIV expression as efficiently as those of adults

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Immunology and Allergy
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Language:English
Date:1 August 1994
Deposited On:12 Oct 2018 08:26
Last Modified:15 Apr 2021 14:48
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0022-1899
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/170.2.318

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