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In vitro effects of nitazoxanide on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes


Walker, Mirjam; Rossignol, Jean François; Torgerson, Paul R; Hemphill, Andrew (2004). In vitro effects of nitazoxanide on Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces and metacestodes. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 54(3):609-616.

Abstract

Objectives: Infection of humans and domestic ruminants with the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus results in cystic echinococcosis (CE). The metacestode causes a space-occupying lesion in visceral organs, most commonly in the liver. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE. In human patients, benzimidazoles have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and adverse side effects are frequently observed. In order to evaluate alternative treatment options, the in vitro efficacy of nitazoxanide, a broad-spectrum drug used against intestinal parasites and bacteria, was investigated. Methods: Freshly isolated E. granulosus protoscoleces were subjected to nitazoxanide treatment (1, 5 and 10 μg/mL), and the effects on parasite viability were monitored by Trypan Blue staining and scanning electron microscopy. Protoscolex cultures were maintained further, until metacestode development took place. Metacestodes were then subjected to nitazoxanide treatment (10 μg/mL), and corresponding effects were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Dose-dependent protoscolex death within a few days of nitazoxanide treatment was observed. Subsequent in vitro culture of drug-treated protoscoleces confirmed the non-viability of parasites, while further cultivation of non-treated protoscoleces for a period of at least 3 months resulted in stage conversion and the formation of small metacestodes 3-4 mm in diameter. Nitazoxanide had a deleterious effect on these metacestodes, which was comparable to that of albendazole. Conclusions: Our study indicates a potential for nitazoxanide as an alternative treatment option against CE

Abstract

Objectives: Infection of humans and domestic ruminants with the larval stage (metacestode) of Echinococcus granulosus results in cystic echinococcosis (CE). The metacestode causes a space-occupying lesion in visceral organs, most commonly in the liver. Benzimidazole carbamate derivatives, such as mebendazole and albendazole, are currently used for chemotherapeutic treatment of CE. In human patients, benzimidazoles have to be applied in high doses for extended periods of time, and adverse side effects are frequently observed. In order to evaluate alternative treatment options, the in vitro efficacy of nitazoxanide, a broad-spectrum drug used against intestinal parasites and bacteria, was investigated. Methods: Freshly isolated E. granulosus protoscoleces were subjected to nitazoxanide treatment (1, 5 and 10 μg/mL), and the effects on parasite viability were monitored by Trypan Blue staining and scanning electron microscopy. Protoscolex cultures were maintained further, until metacestode development took place. Metacestodes were then subjected to nitazoxanide treatment (10 μg/mL), and corresponding effects were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Dose-dependent protoscolex death within a few days of nitazoxanide treatment was observed. Subsequent in vitro culture of drug-treated protoscoleces confirmed the non-viability of parasites, while further cultivation of non-treated protoscoleces for a period of at least 3 months resulted in stage conversion and the formation of small metacestodes 3-4 mm in diameter. Nitazoxanide had a deleterious effect on these metacestodes, which was comparable to that of albendazole. Conclusions: Our study indicates a potential for nitazoxanide as an alternative treatment option against CE

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Chair in Veterinary Epidemiology
National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Pharmacology
Health Sciences > Microbiology (medical)
Health Sciences > Infectious Diseases
Health Sciences > Pharmacology (medical)
Language:English
Date:1 September 2004
Deposited On:19 Oct 2018 06:18
Last Modified:15 Apr 2021 14:49
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0305-7453
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkh386

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