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Once-Weekly Administration of Dapsone/Pyrimethamine vs. Aerosolized Pentamidine as Combined Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia and Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients


Opravil, M; Hirschel, B; Lazzarin, A; Heald, A; Pechere, M; Ruttimann, S; Iten, A; von Overbeck, J; Oertle, D; Praz, G; Vuitton, D A; Mainini, F; Luthy, R (1995). Once-Weekly Administration of Dapsone/Pyrimethamine vs. Aerosolized Pentamidine as Combined Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia and Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 20(3):531-541.

Abstract

To evaluate combined prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and toxoplasmic encephalitis, 533 patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection and/or CD4 lymphocyte counts of <200/µL were randomized to receive dapsone/pyrimethamine (200/75 mg once weekly) or aerosolized pentamidine (300 mg every 4 weeks). The median CD4 lymphocyte count was 110/µL; 47.5% were seropositive for toxoplasma antibodies. The median duration of follow-up was 483 days. In the intent-to-treat analysis, 12 cases of PCP and 14 of toxoplasmic encephalitis occurred in the dapsone/pyrimethamine group and 13 and 20 cases, respectively, in the aerosolized pentamidine group (adjusted relative risk for toxoplasmosis, 0.56; P = .10). However, only two of the 14 cases of toxoplasmic encephalitis in the dapsone/pyrimethamine group developed during actual treatment. The mortality among the two groups was similar. Dapsone/pyrimethamine was not tolerated by 30% of participants. A subanalysis of 240 matched, tolerant patients yielded a relative risk for toxoplasmosis of 0.21 (P = .014), a result favoring the use of dapsone/pyrimethamine. Dapsone/pyrimethamine was as effective as aerosolized pentamidine as prophylaxis for PCP and significantly reduced the incidence of toxoplasmic encephalitis among those participants who tolerated it

Abstract

To evaluate combined prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and toxoplasmic encephalitis, 533 patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection and/or CD4 lymphocyte counts of <200/µL were randomized to receive dapsone/pyrimethamine (200/75 mg once weekly) or aerosolized pentamidine (300 mg every 4 weeks). The median CD4 lymphocyte count was 110/µL; 47.5% were seropositive for toxoplasma antibodies. The median duration of follow-up was 483 days. In the intent-to-treat analysis, 12 cases of PCP and 14 of toxoplasmic encephalitis occurred in the dapsone/pyrimethamine group and 13 and 20 cases, respectively, in the aerosolized pentamidine group (adjusted relative risk for toxoplasmosis, 0.56; P = .10). However, only two of the 14 cases of toxoplasmic encephalitis in the dapsone/pyrimethamine group developed during actual treatment. The mortality among the two groups was similar. Dapsone/pyrimethamine was not tolerated by 30% of participants. A subanalysis of 240 matched, tolerant patients yielded a relative risk for toxoplasmosis of 0.21 (P = .014), a result favoring the use of dapsone/pyrimethamine. Dapsone/pyrimethamine was as effective as aerosolized pentamidine as prophylaxis for PCP and significantly reduced the incidence of toxoplasmic encephalitis among those participants who tolerated it

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 March 1995
Deposited On:12 Oct 2018 08:00
Last Modified:24 Nov 2018 02:58
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:1058-4838
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/clinids/20.3.531
Related URLs:https://www.swissbib.ch/Search/Results?lookfor=nationallicenceoxford101093clinids203531 (Library Catalogue)

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