Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a heterogeneous group of syndromes with different symptoms. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration is mostly used as a clinical umbrella term for different diseases. In some clinical subtypes of the FTLD spectrum, a close correlation with underlying pathology can be found. Neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and position emission tomography help to detect neuroanatomical lesions and therefore obtain relevance for in vivo prediction of neurodegeneration. However, there is still a lack of neurochemical biomarkers helping to differentiate between underlying histopathologies. The following review gives an overview about present neurochemical biomarker studies and perspective approaches in the diagnosis of FTLD.