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Coronary vasomotor tone during static and dynamic exercise


Hess, O M; Bortone, A; Eid, K; Gage, J E; Nonogi, H; Grimm, J; Krayenbuehl, H P (1989). Coronary vasomotor tone during static and dynamic exercise. European Heart Journal, 10(suppl F):105-110.

Abstract

Coronary vasomotion is an important determinant of myocardial perfusion in patients with angina pectoris, and it influences not only normal but also stenotic coronary arteries. The ability of a stenotic coronary artery to change its size is dependent on the presence of a normal musculo-elastic wall segment within the stenosis (i.e., eccentric stenosis). Coronary vasoconstriction of normal and stenotic coronary arteries has been reported by Brown and coworkers (Circulation 1984; 70: 18-24) during isometric exercise. The effect of dynamic exericse on coronary vasomotion was evaluated in one group of 13 patients with ischaemia-like symptoms and normal coronary arteries (group 1) and in a second group of 12 patients with coronary artery disease with exercise-induced angina pectoris (group 2). Luminal area of a normal and a stenotic vessel segment was determined by biplane quantitative coronary arteriography at rest, during supine bicycle exercise and 5 min after administration of 1·6 mg sublingual nitroglycerin. Coronary sinus blood flow was measured in group 1 at rest and after 0·5 mg kg−1 intravenous dipyridamole using coronary sinus thermodilution. Coronary flow reserve was calculated from coronary sinus flow after dipyridamole divided by coronary sinus flow at rest. In group 1, coronary vasodilation of the large (i.e., proximal) and the small (i.e., distal) coronary arteries was observed during exercise in seven patients (subgroup A). However, in the remaining six patients (subgroup B) coronary vasoconstriction of the small arteries (−24%, P<0·001) was found during exercise, whereas the large vessels showed coronary vasodilation (+26%, P<0·001). Coronary flow reserve was significantly (P<0·05) larger in subgroup A (mean 2·5) than in subgroup B (mean 1·2) with exercise-induced vasoconstriction of the small epicardial arteries. In group 2 vasodilation of the normal (+23%, P<0·001) and vasoconstriction of the stenotic coronary arteries (−29, P<0·001) was found during supine bicycle exercise. Administration of sublingual nitroglycerin at the end of the exercise test was accompanied by coronary vasodilation of both normal (+40%, P<0·001 vs rest) and stenotic (+12%, NS vs rest) vessel segments. It is concluded that isometric exercise is associated with reflex coronary vasoconstriction of the normal and stenotic vessel segments due to enhanced sympathetic stimulation. Dynamic exercise in patients with ischaemia-like symptoms and normal coronary arteries is accompanied by an abnormal dilatory response of the small coronary arteries in a subgroup of patients with reduced coronary flow reserve. Dynamic exercise in patients with coronary artery disease is, however, associated with coronary vasodilation of the normal and coronary vasoconstriction of the stenotic vessel segments. The nature of this exercise-induced vasoconstriction of stenotic coronary arteries is not clear, but might be related to endothelial dysfunction with an insufficient production of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor during exercise

Abstract

Coronary vasomotion is an important determinant of myocardial perfusion in patients with angina pectoris, and it influences not only normal but also stenotic coronary arteries. The ability of a stenotic coronary artery to change its size is dependent on the presence of a normal musculo-elastic wall segment within the stenosis (i.e., eccentric stenosis). Coronary vasoconstriction of normal and stenotic coronary arteries has been reported by Brown and coworkers (Circulation 1984; 70: 18-24) during isometric exercise. The effect of dynamic exericse on coronary vasomotion was evaluated in one group of 13 patients with ischaemia-like symptoms and normal coronary arteries (group 1) and in a second group of 12 patients with coronary artery disease with exercise-induced angina pectoris (group 2). Luminal area of a normal and a stenotic vessel segment was determined by biplane quantitative coronary arteriography at rest, during supine bicycle exercise and 5 min after administration of 1·6 mg sublingual nitroglycerin. Coronary sinus blood flow was measured in group 1 at rest and after 0·5 mg kg−1 intravenous dipyridamole using coronary sinus thermodilution. Coronary flow reserve was calculated from coronary sinus flow after dipyridamole divided by coronary sinus flow at rest. In group 1, coronary vasodilation of the large (i.e., proximal) and the small (i.e., distal) coronary arteries was observed during exercise in seven patients (subgroup A). However, in the remaining six patients (subgroup B) coronary vasoconstriction of the small arteries (−24%, P<0·001) was found during exercise, whereas the large vessels showed coronary vasodilation (+26%, P<0·001). Coronary flow reserve was significantly (P<0·05) larger in subgroup A (mean 2·5) than in subgroup B (mean 1·2) with exercise-induced vasoconstriction of the small epicardial arteries. In group 2 vasodilation of the normal (+23%, P<0·001) and vasoconstriction of the stenotic coronary arteries (−29, P<0·001) was found during supine bicycle exercise. Administration of sublingual nitroglycerin at the end of the exercise test was accompanied by coronary vasodilation of both normal (+40%, P<0·001 vs rest) and stenotic (+12%, NS vs rest) vessel segments. It is concluded that isometric exercise is associated with reflex coronary vasoconstriction of the normal and stenotic vessel segments due to enhanced sympathetic stimulation. Dynamic exercise in patients with ischaemia-like symptoms and normal coronary arteries is accompanied by an abnormal dilatory response of the small coronary arteries in a subgroup of patients with reduced coronary flow reserve. Dynamic exercise in patients with coronary artery disease is, however, associated with coronary vasodilation of the normal and coronary vasoconstriction of the stenotic vessel segments. The nature of this exercise-induced vasoconstriction of stenotic coronary arteries is not clear, but might be related to endothelial dysfunction with an insufficient production of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor during exercise

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2 November 1989
Deposited On:17 Oct 2018 14:53
Last Modified:24 Nov 2018 03:05
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0195-668X
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/10.suppl_f.105
Related URLs:https://www.swissbib.ch/Search/Results?lookfor=nationallicenceoxford101093eurheartj10suppl_F105 (Library Catalogue)

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