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β-Cyclocitral, a Grazer defence signal unique to the cyanobacterium microcystis


Jüttner, Friedrich; Watson, Susan B; von Elert, Eric; Köster, Oliver (2010). β-Cyclocitral, a Grazer defence signal unique to the cyanobacterium microcystis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 36(12):1387-1397.

Abstract

β-Cyclocitral is often present in eutrophic waters and is a well known source of airborne and drinking water malodor, but its production and functional ecology are unresolved. This volatile organic compound (VOC) is derived from the catalytic breakdown of β-carotene, and evidence indicates that it is produced by the activation of a specific carotene oxygenase by all species of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis. Previous work has shown that β-cyclocitral affects grazer behavior, but the nature of this interaction and its influence on predator-prey dynamics was unresolved. The present study combined analytical and behavioral studies to evaluate this interaction by using Microcystis NRC-1 and Daphnia magna. Results showed that β-cyclocitral was undetectable in live Microcystis cells, or present only at extremely low concentrations (2.6 amol /cell). In contrast, cell rupture activated a rapid carotene oxygenase reaction, which produced high amounts (77 ± 5.5 amol β-cyclocitral/cell), corresponding to a calculated maximum intracellular concentration of 2.2mM. The behavioral response of Daphnia magna to β-cyclocitral was evaluated in a bbe© Daphnia toximeter, where β-cyclocitral treatments induced a marked increase in swimming velocity. Acclimation took place within a few minutes, when Daphnia returned to normal swimming velocity while still exposed to β-cyclocitral. The minimum VOC concentration (odor threshold) that elicited a significant grazer response was 750nM β-cyclocitral, some 2,900 times lower than the per capita yield of a growing Microcystis cell after activation. Under natural conditions, initial grazer-related or other mode of cell rupture would lead to the development of a robust β-cyclocitral microzone around Microcystis colonies, thus acting as both a powerful repellent and signal of poor quality food to grazers

Abstract

β-Cyclocitral is often present in eutrophic waters and is a well known source of airborne and drinking water malodor, but its production and functional ecology are unresolved. This volatile organic compound (VOC) is derived from the catalytic breakdown of β-carotene, and evidence indicates that it is produced by the activation of a specific carotene oxygenase by all species of the bloom-forming cyanobacterium Microcystis. Previous work has shown that β-cyclocitral affects grazer behavior, but the nature of this interaction and its influence on predator-prey dynamics was unresolved. The present study combined analytical and behavioral studies to evaluate this interaction by using Microcystis NRC-1 and Daphnia magna. Results showed that β-cyclocitral was undetectable in live Microcystis cells, or present only at extremely low concentrations (2.6 amol /cell). In contrast, cell rupture activated a rapid carotene oxygenase reaction, which produced high amounts (77 ± 5.5 amol β-cyclocitral/cell), corresponding to a calculated maximum intracellular concentration of 2.2mM. The behavioral response of Daphnia magna to β-cyclocitral was evaluated in a bbe© Daphnia toximeter, where β-cyclocitral treatments induced a marked increase in swimming velocity. Acclimation took place within a few minutes, when Daphnia returned to normal swimming velocity while still exposed to β-cyclocitral. The minimum VOC concentration (odor threshold) that elicited a significant grazer response was 750nM β-cyclocitral, some 2,900 times lower than the per capita yield of a growing Microcystis cell after activation. Under natural conditions, initial grazer-related or other mode of cell rupture would lead to the development of a robust β-cyclocitral microzone around Microcystis colonies, thus acting as both a powerful repellent and signal of poor quality food to grazers

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:570 Life sciences; biology
590 Animals (Zoology)
Language:English
Date:1 December 2010
Deposited On:28 Nov 2018 17:41
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 23:44
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0098-0331
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-010-9877-0
Related URLs:https://www.swissbib.ch/Search/Results?lookfor=nationallicencespringer101007s1088601098770 (Library Catalogue)
PubMed ID:21072572

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