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Parkinsonism with excessive daytime sleepiness


Baumann, Christian; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Waldvogel, Daniel; Werth, Esther; Bassetti, Claudio Lino (2005). Parkinsonism with excessive daytime sleepiness. Journal of Neurology, 252(2):139-145.

Abstract

Background : Parkinsonian patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), hallucinations, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), short mean sleep latencies, and sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMP) on multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) have been reported. In these patients a narcolepsy-like pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances has been suggested. Patients and methods : We studied 14 consecutive patients with Parkinsonism and EDS. Standard studies included assessment of duration and severity of Parkinsonism (Hoehn & Yahr score), Epworth sleepiness score (ESS), history of "REM-symptoms” (RBD/hallucinations/sleep paralysis/cataplexy-like episodes), polysomnography (PSG),MSLT, and measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of hypocretin-1 (orexin A). Results : There were 12 men and 2 women (mean age 69 years; range 54-82). The mean duration and the Hoehn & Yahr score were 6.3 years and 2.2, respectively. Diagnoses included idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD, n=10), dementia with diffuse Lewy bodies (n=3), and multisystem atrophy (n=1). The ESS was ≥10 in all patients (mean 12; range 10-18). "REM-symptoms” were reported by all but two patients (hallucinations: n=9; RBD: n=9).None of the patients reported cataplexy-like symptoms or sleep paralysis. On PSG sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index > 10/h, n=7), periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS-index > 10/h, n=6), and features of RBD (n=5) were found. On MSLT mean sleep latency was < 5 minutes in 10 patients, and SOREMP were found in two patients. When compared with controls (n=20, mean 497 pg/ml; range 350-603), CSF hypocretin-1 levels were normal in 8 patients and low in 2 patients (221 and 307 pg/ml, respectively). Conclusion : These findings do not support the hypothesis of a "final common pathway” in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy and Parkinsonism with EDS. Sleep apnea and PLMS may play a so-far underestimated role in the pathogenesis of EDS in Parkinsonian patients

Abstract

Background : Parkinsonian patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), hallucinations, REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), short mean sleep latencies, and sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMP) on multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) have been reported. In these patients a narcolepsy-like pathophysiology of sleep-wake disturbances has been suggested. Patients and methods : We studied 14 consecutive patients with Parkinsonism and EDS. Standard studies included assessment of duration and severity of Parkinsonism (Hoehn & Yahr score), Epworth sleepiness score (ESS), history of "REM-symptoms” (RBD/hallucinations/sleep paralysis/cataplexy-like episodes), polysomnography (PSG),MSLT, and measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of hypocretin-1 (orexin A). Results : There were 12 men and 2 women (mean age 69 years; range 54-82). The mean duration and the Hoehn & Yahr score were 6.3 years and 2.2, respectively. Diagnoses included idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD, n=10), dementia with diffuse Lewy bodies (n=3), and multisystem atrophy (n=1). The ESS was ≥10 in all patients (mean 12; range 10-18). "REM-symptoms” were reported by all but two patients (hallucinations: n=9; RBD: n=9).None of the patients reported cataplexy-like symptoms or sleep paralysis. On PSG sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index > 10/h, n=7), periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS-index > 10/h, n=6), and features of RBD (n=5) were found. On MSLT mean sleep latency was < 5 minutes in 10 patients, and SOREMP were found in two patients. When compared with controls (n=20, mean 497 pg/ml; range 350-603), CSF hypocretin-1 levels were normal in 8 patients and low in 2 patients (221 and 307 pg/ml, respectively). Conclusion : These findings do not support the hypothesis of a "final common pathway” in the pathophysiology of narcolepsy and Parkinsonism with EDS. Sleep apnea and PLMS may play a so-far underestimated role in the pathogenesis of EDS in Parkinsonian patients

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Life Sciences > Neurology
Health Sciences > Neurology (clinical)
Language:English
Date:1 February 2005
Deposited On:23 Oct 2018 15:19
Last Modified:15 Apr 2021 14:52
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0340-5354
OA Status:Green
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-005-0614-5

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