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Immunization in children with chronic renal failure: a practical approach


Neuhaus, Thomas J (2004). Immunization in children with chronic renal failure: a practical approach. Pediatric Nephrology, 19(12):1334-1339.

Abstract

The prevention of systemic viral and bacterial infections by effective vaccination represents an essential task of pediatric nephrologists caring for children with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing renal transplantation (RTPL) with life-long immunosuppression. This review addresses three issues: risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, safety, immunogenicity, and clinical efficacy of available vaccines, and implementation of immunization guidelines. Infections (including vaccine-preventable infections) represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children on dialysis and after RTPL. Vaccination in children with CRF and after RTPL is safe and does not cause reactivation of an immune-related renal disease or rejection after RTPL. Children with CRF generally produce protective serum antibodies to primary vaccinations with killed or component vaccines and live virus vaccines; some children on dialysis and after RTPL may not respond optimally, requiring repeated vaccination. Proof of vaccine efficacy is absence of disease, which can only be confirmed in large cohort studies. A few observational studies provide evidence that vaccination has contributed significantly, at least in the western hemisphere, to the low prevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases among children with CRF. Close cooperation between the local pediatrician/practitioner and the pediatric nephrologist is essential for successful implementation of the vaccination schedule

Abstract

The prevention of systemic viral and bacterial infections by effective vaccination represents an essential task of pediatric nephrologists caring for children with chronic renal failure (CRF) undergoing renal transplantation (RTPL) with life-long immunosuppression. This review addresses three issues: risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, safety, immunogenicity, and clinical efficacy of available vaccines, and implementation of immunization guidelines. Infections (including vaccine-preventable infections) represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children on dialysis and after RTPL. Vaccination in children with CRF and after RTPL is safe and does not cause reactivation of an immune-related renal disease or rejection after RTPL. Children with CRF generally produce protective serum antibodies to primary vaccinations with killed or component vaccines and live virus vaccines; some children on dialysis and after RTPL may not respond optimally, requiring repeated vaccination. Proof of vaccine efficacy is absence of disease, which can only be confirmed in large cohort studies. A few observational studies provide evidence that vaccination has contributed significantly, at least in the western hemisphere, to the low prevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases among children with CRF. Close cooperation between the local pediatrician/practitioner and the pediatric nephrologist is essential for successful implementation of the vaccination schedule

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:National licences > 142-005
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Pediatrics, Perinatology and Child Health
Health Sciences > Nephrology
Language:English
Date:1 December 2004
Deposited On:19 Oct 2018 12:10
Last Modified:15 Apr 2021 14:53
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0931-041X
OA Status:Green
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00467-004-1597-7

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