Competitive behaviour amongst members of the same sex is termed intrasexual competition. The tendency to engage in such competition appears to be strongly related to stable individual characteristics such as personality traits. Additionally, recent studies have revealed transient fluctuations in competitiveness according to the female menstrual cycle. To date, no German questionnaire exists to measure intrasexual competition. Our first study aimed to translate and validate the Intrasexual Competition Scale (ICS) by Buunk and Fisher (J Evol Psychol 7:37-48, 2009) in a population of healthy Swiss females (n = 241). Our second study applied the validated German ICS in a group of healthy, regularly cycling females (n = 49) in order to examine possible associations between the menstrual cycle phase and ICS scores. The psychometric properties suggest that the German ICS is a reliable and valid tool to assess individual differences in female intrasexual competition. Furthermore, our second study demonstrated that on average, women showed higher intrasexual competition scores when tested in the late follicular phase (M = 35.77 ± SD = 12.03) compared to the mid-luteal phase (M = 30.93 ± SD = 10.20). Our studies support previous findings of an association between ICS scores and relatively stable individual characteristics such as personality traits. Furthermore, our research endorses the assumption of cycle-dependent fluctuations in intrasexual competition. Future research should clarify the precise mechanisms underlying these findings and include biomarkers such as oestrogen and testosterone.