Abstract: Advanced surface modifications and materials were tested on the same implant geometry. Six types of dental implants were tested for osseointegration after 2, 4 and 8 weeks in a sheep pelvis model. Four titanium implant types were treated with newly developed surface modifications, of which two were chemically and two were pharmacologically modified. One implant was made of zirconia. A sandblasted and acid-etched titanium surface was used as reference. The chemically modified implants were plasma-anodized or coated with calcium phosphate. The pharmacological coatings contained either biphosphonate or collagen type I with chondroitin sulphate. The implants were evaluated using macroscopic, radiographic and histomorphometric methods.
All implants were well osseointegrated at the time of death. All titanium implants had similar bone implant contact (BIC) at 2 weeks (57-61 %); only zirconia was better (77 %). The main BIC increase was between 2 and 4 weeks. The pharmacologically coated implants (78-79 %) and the calcium phosphate coating (85 %) showed similar results compared with the reference implant (80 %) at 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in BIC. Compared with previous studies, the results of all implants were comparatively good.