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Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Very Young Children: Diagnostic Agreement Between ICD-11 and DSM-5


Vasileva, Mira; Haag, Ann-Christin; Landolt, Markus A; Petermann, Franz (2018). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Very Young Children: Diagnostic Agreement Between ICD-11 and DSM-5. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 31(4):529-539.

Abstract

The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in very young children depends on the diagnostic criteria. Thus far, studies have investigated the International Classification of Diseases (11th rev.; ICD-11) criteria for PTSD only in samples of children older than 6 years of age. The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic agreement between the ICD-11 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria for children who are 6 years old and younger. Caregivers of children aged 3-6 years in foster care in Germany (N = 147) and parents of children aged 1-4 years who had attended a hospital in Switzerland following burn injuries (N  = 149) completed a questionnaire about children's PTSD. Rates of PTSD were calculated according to ICD-11 (considering a specific and a more general conceptualization of intrusive memories) and DSM-5 criteria and were compared using McNemar's tests and Cohen's kappa. The proportion of children who met the ICD-11 criteria was 0.6-25.8% lower than the proportion of PTSD cases according to the DSM-5 criteria. The diagnostic agreement between each ICD-11 algorithm and DSM-5 was moderate, κ = 0.52-0.66. A systematic investigation of adaptions of the ICD-11 avoidance cluster identified alternative symptom combinations leading to higher agreement with the DSM-5 requirements. Furthermore, DSM-5 had higher predictive power for functional impairment than the ICD-11 algorithms. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the ICD-11 criteria show less sensitivity in very young children, which can be explained by the more stringent avoidance cluster.

Abstract

The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in very young children depends on the diagnostic criteria. Thus far, studies have investigated the International Classification of Diseases (11th rev.; ICD-11) criteria for PTSD only in samples of children older than 6 years of age. The aim of this study was to test the diagnostic agreement between the ICD-11 and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria for children who are 6 years old and younger. Caregivers of children aged 3-6 years in foster care in Germany (N = 147) and parents of children aged 1-4 years who had attended a hospital in Switzerland following burn injuries (N  = 149) completed a questionnaire about children's PTSD. Rates of PTSD were calculated according to ICD-11 (considering a specific and a more general conceptualization of intrusive memories) and DSM-5 criteria and were compared using McNemar's tests and Cohen's kappa. The proportion of children who met the ICD-11 criteria was 0.6-25.8% lower than the proportion of PTSD cases according to the DSM-5 criteria. The diagnostic agreement between each ICD-11 algorithm and DSM-5 was moderate, κ = 0.52-0.66. A systematic investigation of adaptions of the ICD-11 avoidance cluster identified alternative symptom combinations leading to higher agreement with the DSM-5 requirements. Furthermore, DSM-5 had higher predictive power for functional impairment than the ICD-11 algorithms. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the ICD-11 criteria show less sensitivity in very young children, which can be explained by the more stringent avoidance cluster.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Children's Hospital Zurich > Medical Clinic
06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Language:English
Date:August 2018
Deposited On:09 Oct 2018 10:45
Last Modified:09 Oct 2018 10:45
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:0894-9867
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.22314
PubMed ID:30052288

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