Header

UZH-Logo

Maintenance Infos

Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt: Two studies


Warner, Lisa M; Stadler, Gertraud; Lüscher, Janina; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte (2018). Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt: Two studies. British Journal of Health Psychology, 23(2):371-386.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In social-cognitive theory, it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design.

DESIGN: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1,787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1,401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1,328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date.

METHODS: Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models.

RESULTS: Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners' mastery on individuals' mastery and partners' self-efficacy on individuals' self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners' mastery experiences) and individuals' self-efficacy.

CONCLUSIONS: This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-efficacy is one of the strongest correlates of quitting smoking. Despite the assumptions on how self-efficacy is built formulated by Bandura two decades ago, there is only little empirical evidence on the origins of self-efficacy. The open research questions for these two studies were whether mastery experiences (experiencing success with the new behavior) and vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) facilitate the smoking cessation process, whether mastery experiences and self-efficacy affect one another reciprocally and whether intimate partners serve as role models for each other. What does this study add? Mastery experiences and self-efficacy are mutually depended on a day-to-day basis within the smoking cessation process. Effects of mastery experiences fade rapidly, indicating that constant successes are needed to keep up self-efficacy. Dual-smoker couples show similar changes in a contagious way - if mastery experiences increase in one person, mastery experiences increase in the partner; if self-efficacy increases in one person, self-efficacy increases in the partner, too. No support for vicarious experiences (mastery experiences in one person affecting self-efficacy in the partner and vice versa) as sources of self-efficacy in the quitting process was found.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: In social-cognitive theory, it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design.

DESIGN: This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1,787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1,401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1,328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date.

METHODS: Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models.

RESULTS: Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners' mastery on individuals' mastery and partners' self-efficacy on individuals' self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners' mastery experiences) and individuals' self-efficacy.

CONCLUSIONS: This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-efficacy is one of the strongest correlates of quitting smoking. Despite the assumptions on how self-efficacy is built formulated by Bandura two decades ago, there is only little empirical evidence on the origins of self-efficacy. The open research questions for these two studies were whether mastery experiences (experiencing success with the new behavior) and vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) facilitate the smoking cessation process, whether mastery experiences and self-efficacy affect one another reciprocally and whether intimate partners serve as role models for each other. What does this study add? Mastery experiences and self-efficacy are mutually depended on a day-to-day basis within the smoking cessation process. Effects of mastery experiences fade rapidly, indicating that constant successes are needed to keep up self-efficacy. Dual-smoker couples show similar changes in a contagious way - if mastery experiences increase in one person, mastery experiences increase in the partner; if self-efficacy increases in one person, self-efficacy increases in the partner, too. No support for vicarious experiences (mastery experiences in one person affecting self-efficacy in the partner and vice versa) as sources of self-efficacy in the quitting process was found.

Statistics

Citations

Dimensions.ai Metrics
1 citation in Web of Science®
1 citation in Scopus®
Google Scholar™

Altmetrics

Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:06 Faculty of Arts > Institute of Psychology
Dewey Decimal Classification:150 Psychology
Language:English
Date:May 2018
Deposited On:10 Oct 2018 09:09
Last Modified:10 Oct 2018 09:11
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1359-107X
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12293
PubMed ID:29333730
Project Information:
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant ID100019_124516
  • : Project TitleDyadische und Individuelle Regulationsprozesse bei der Entwöhnung von Chronischem Tabakgebrauch (DIRECT)
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant IDPP00P1_133632
  • : Project TitleInter- and intraindividual dynamics in health behavior change
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant IDIZK0Z1_166834
  • : Project TitleIntra-individuelle Entwicklung der Selbstwirksamkeit nach Rauch-Stopp: Zusammenspiel mit Erfolgserfahrung, Attribution und Selbstüberschätzung
  • : FunderSNSF
  • : Grant IDIZKOZT_L66834
  • : Project Title

Download

Full text not available from this repository.
View at publisher

Get full-text in a library