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Liquid Blood Phantoms to Validate NIRS Oximeters: Yeast Versus Nitrogen for Deoxygenation


Isler, Helene; Kleiser, Stefan; Ostojic, Daniel; Scholkmann, Felix; Karen, Tanja; Wolf, Martin (2018). Liquid Blood Phantoms to Validate NIRS Oximeters: Yeast Versus Nitrogen for Deoxygenation. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 1072:381-385.

Abstract

Liquid blood phantoms are a tool to calibrate, test and compare near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximeters. They comprise a mixture of saline, blood and Intralipid, which is subsequently oxygenated and deoxygenated to assess the entire range of tissue oxygen saturation (StO) from 0% to 100%. The aim was to investigate two different deoxygenation methods: yeast versus nitrogen (N) bubbling. The phantom was oxygenated with pure O in both experiments, but deoxygenated by bubbling N in the first and by addition of yeast and glucose in the second experiment. A frequency domain NIRS instrument (OxiplexTS) was used as reference and to monitor changes in the reduced scattering coefficient (μ') of the phantom. Both deoxygenation methods yielded comparable StO values. The deoxygenation was slower by a factor 2.8 and μ' decreased faster when bubbling N. The constant bubbling of N mechanically stresses the Intralipid emulsion and causes a decrease in μ', probably due to aggregation of lipid droplets. Deoxygenation by N requires a more complex, air tight phantom. The gas flow cools the liquid and temperature needs to be monitored more closely. Consequently, we recommend using yeast for phantom deoxygenation.

Abstract

Liquid blood phantoms are a tool to calibrate, test and compare near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) oximeters. They comprise a mixture of saline, blood and Intralipid, which is subsequently oxygenated and deoxygenated to assess the entire range of tissue oxygen saturation (StO) from 0% to 100%. The aim was to investigate two different deoxygenation methods: yeast versus nitrogen (N) bubbling. The phantom was oxygenated with pure O in both experiments, but deoxygenated by bubbling N in the first and by addition of yeast and glucose in the second experiment. A frequency domain NIRS instrument (OxiplexTS) was used as reference and to monitor changes in the reduced scattering coefficient (μ') of the phantom. Both deoxygenation methods yielded comparable StO values. The deoxygenation was slower by a factor 2.8 and μ' decreased faster when bubbling N. The constant bubbling of N mechanically stresses the Intralipid emulsion and causes a decrease in μ', probably due to aggregation of lipid droplets. Deoxygenation by N requires a more complex, air tight phantom. The gas flow cools the liquid and temperature needs to be monitored more closely. Consequently, we recommend using yeast for phantom deoxygenation.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Neonatology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:2018
Deposited On:25 Oct 2018 10:28
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 23:49
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0065-2598
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91287-5_61
PubMed ID:30178375

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