The rising incidence of invasive fungal infections and the expanding spectrum of fungal pathogens makes early and accurate identification of the causative pathogen a daunting task. Diagnostics using molecular markers enable rapid identification of fungi, offer new insights into infectious disease dynamics, and open new possibilities for infectious disease control and prevention. We performed a retrospective study using clinical specimens (N = 233) from patients with suspected fungal infection previously subjected to culture and/or internal transcribed spacer (ITS) PCR. We used these specimens to evaluate a high-throughput screening method for fungal detection using automated DNA extraction (QIASymphony), fungal ribosomal small subunit (18S) rDNA RT-PCR and amplicon sequencing. Fungal sequences were compared with sequences from the curated, commercially available SmartGene IDNS database for pathogen identification. Concordance between 18S rDNA RT-PCR and culture results was 91%, and congruence between 18S rDNA RT-PCR and ITS PCR results was 94%. In addition, 18S rDNA RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing detected fungal pathogens in culture negative (N = 13) and ITS PCR negative specimens (N = 12) from patients with a clinically confirmed fungal infection. Our results support the use of the 18S rDNA RT-PCR diagnostic workflow for rapid and accurate identification of fungal pathogens in clinical specimens.