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Pelvic MRI after induction chemotherapy and before long-course chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer: What are the imaging findings?


Gollub, Marc J; Blazic, Ivana; Bates, David D B; Campbell, Naomi; Knezevic, Andrea; Gonen, Mithat; Lynn, Patricio; Weiser, Martin R; Garcia-Aguilar, Julio; Hötker, Andreas M; Cercek, Andrea; Saltz, Leonard (2019). Pelvic MRI after induction chemotherapy and before long-course chemoradiation therapy for rectal cancer: What are the imaging findings? European Radiology, 29(4):1733-1742.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES To determine the appearance of rectal cancer on MRI after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (ICT) and make a preliminary assessment of MRI's value in predicting response to total neoadjuvant treatment (TNT). METHODS In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study between 1 January 2010-20 October 2014, pre- and post-ICT tumour T2 volume, relative T2 signal intensity (rT2SI), node size, signal intensity and border characteristics were assessed in 63 patients (65 tumours) by three readers. The strength of association between the reference standard of histopathological percent tumour response and tumour volume change, rT2SI and lymph node characteristics was assessed with Spearman's correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Cox regression was used to assess association between DFS and radiological measures. RESULTS Change in T2 volume was not associated with TNT response. Change in rT2SI showed correlation with TNT response for one reader only using selective regions of interest (ROIs) and borderline correlation with response using total volume ROI. There was a significant negative correlation between baseline and post-ICT node size and TNT response (r = -0.25, p = 0.05; r = -0.35, p = 0.005, readers 1 and 2, respectively). Both baseline and post-induction median node sizes were significantly smaller in complete responders (p = 0.03, 0.001; readers 1 and 2, respectively). Change in largest baseline node size and decrease in post-ICT node signal heterogeneity were associated with 100% tumour response (p = 0.04). Nodal sizes at baseline and post-ICT MRI correlated with DFS. CONCLUSION In patients undergoing post-ICT MRI, tumour volume did not correlate with TNT response, but decreased lymph node sizes were significantly associated with complete response to TNT as well as DFS. Relative T2SI showed borderline correlation with TNT response. KEY POINTS • MRI-based tumour volume after induction chemotherapy and before chemoradiotherapy did not correlate with overall tumour response at the end of all treatment. • Lymph node size after induction chemotherapy and before chemoradiotherapy was strongly associated with complete pathological response after all treatment. • Lymph node sizes at baseline and post-induction chemotherapy MRI correlated with disease-free survival.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES To determine the appearance of rectal cancer on MRI after oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (ICT) and make a preliminary assessment of MRI's value in predicting response to total neoadjuvant treatment (TNT). METHODS In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study between 1 January 2010-20 October 2014, pre- and post-ICT tumour T2 volume, relative T2 signal intensity (rT2SI), node size, signal intensity and border characteristics were assessed in 63 patients (65 tumours) by three readers. The strength of association between the reference standard of histopathological percent tumour response and tumour volume change, rT2SI and lymph node characteristics was assessed with Spearman's correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Cox regression was used to assess association between DFS and radiological measures. RESULTS Change in T2 volume was not associated with TNT response. Change in rT2SI showed correlation with TNT response for one reader only using selective regions of interest (ROIs) and borderline correlation with response using total volume ROI. There was a significant negative correlation between baseline and post-ICT node size and TNT response (r = -0.25, p = 0.05; r = -0.35, p = 0.005, readers 1 and 2, respectively). Both baseline and post-induction median node sizes were significantly smaller in complete responders (p = 0.03, 0.001; readers 1 and 2, respectively). Change in largest baseline node size and decrease in post-ICT node signal heterogeneity were associated with 100% tumour response (p = 0.04). Nodal sizes at baseline and post-ICT MRI correlated with DFS. CONCLUSION In patients undergoing post-ICT MRI, tumour volume did not correlate with TNT response, but decreased lymph node sizes were significantly associated with complete response to TNT as well as DFS. Relative T2SI showed borderline correlation with TNT response. KEY POINTS • MRI-based tumour volume after induction chemotherapy and before chemoradiotherapy did not correlate with overall tumour response at the end of all treatment. • Lymph node size after induction chemotherapy and before chemoradiotherapy was strongly associated with complete pathological response after all treatment. • Lymph node sizes at baseline and post-induction chemotherapy MRI correlated with disease-free survival.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging
Language:English
Date:1 April 2019
Deposited On:01 Nov 2018 07:14
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 07:57
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0938-7994
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-018-5726-2
PubMed ID:30280248

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