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The best knot and suture configurations for high-strength suture material. An in vitro biomechanical study


Meyer, Dominik C; Bachmann, Elias; Lädermann, Alexandre; Lajtai, Georg; Jentzsch, Thorsten (2018). The best knot and suture configurations for high-strength suture material. An in vitro biomechanical study. Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research (OTSR), 104(8):1277-1282.

Abstract

Purpose Surgical knots are particularly challenged by high-strength suture material. It was hypothesized that sutures in a double-stranded looped configuration present mechanical advantages. Methods This in vitro biomechanical study repeatedly tested 12 different knots with a static distraction material testing machine with a constant tensile speed. The cow hitch, its altered version, and conventional half hitches were also tested on bovine tendon. Suture material was braided polyblend non-bioresorbable polyester. Primary outcome was knot security (stiffness) at clinical failure (≥ 3 mm displacement). Secondary outcomes were knot size and loop security. Results Double-stranded looped knots were up to three times stronger than one and a half- and single-stranded knots. The cow hitch was stiffest (mean 185 [95% CI 172–197] Newton per millimeter [N/mm]) (p < 0.001), followed by the Nice knot (169 [154–183] N/mm). It was stiffer than half hitches (65 [53–78] N/mm). These findings remained in tendons (82 [77–86] and 40 [32–49] N/mm, p < 0.001). The cow hitch (7.6 mm3) and Nice knot (6.1 mm3) were smaller than half hitches (9.5 mm3). Loop security did not differ between the cow hitch and Nice knot, but was higher in the cow hitch than half hitch (158 [120–196] N and 85 [57–113] N, p < 0.001). Conclusions Double-stranded knot configurations with a loop on one side are mechanically stronger and stiffer, less bulky, and preserve applied tension during tying better than conventional knots. The best performing and technically most simple knots best suited to exploit enormous mechanical capabilities of modern high-strength suture material are the cow hitch and Nice knot. Level of evidence Not applicable due to the biomechanical nature of the study. Keywords Knot Cow hitch (Lark's head) Half hitch Knot security (stiffness) Loop security (tension) Size

Abstract

Purpose Surgical knots are particularly challenged by high-strength suture material. It was hypothesized that sutures in a double-stranded looped configuration present mechanical advantages. Methods This in vitro biomechanical study repeatedly tested 12 different knots with a static distraction material testing machine with a constant tensile speed. The cow hitch, its altered version, and conventional half hitches were also tested on bovine tendon. Suture material was braided polyblend non-bioresorbable polyester. Primary outcome was knot security (stiffness) at clinical failure (≥ 3 mm displacement). Secondary outcomes were knot size and loop security. Results Double-stranded looped knots were up to three times stronger than one and a half- and single-stranded knots. The cow hitch was stiffest (mean 185 [95% CI 172–197] Newton per millimeter [N/mm]) (p < 0.001), followed by the Nice knot (169 [154–183] N/mm). It was stiffer than half hitches (65 [53–78] N/mm). These findings remained in tendons (82 [77–86] and 40 [32–49] N/mm, p < 0.001). The cow hitch (7.6 mm3) and Nice knot (6.1 mm3) were smaller than half hitches (9.5 mm3). Loop security did not differ between the cow hitch and Nice knot, but was higher in the cow hitch than half hitch (158 [120–196] N and 85 [57–113] N, p < 0.001). Conclusions Double-stranded knot configurations with a loop on one side are mechanically stronger and stiffer, less bulky, and preserve applied tension during tying better than conventional knots. The best performing and technically most simple knots best suited to exploit enormous mechanical capabilities of modern high-strength suture material are the cow hitch and Nice knot. Level of evidence Not applicable due to the biomechanical nature of the study. Keywords Knot Cow hitch (Lark's head) Half hitch Knot security (stiffness) Loop security (tension) Size

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 December 2018
Deposited On:02 Nov 2018 07:54
Last Modified:17 Sep 2019 19:41
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1877-0568
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2018.08.010
PubMed ID:30327262

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