Glutamate is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain, but in vivo imaging of acute fluctuations in glutamatergic levels has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to examine acute changes in glutamate after stimulation with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) using a simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PET/MRS) approach. Ten healthy adult males were examined in two scanning sessions, and 5g NAC was administered 1 h prior to one of the scan sessions. Simultaneous PET/MR data were acquired using an integrated 3T PET/MR scanner. Glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) levels were assessed from MRS data collected from the basal ganglia with PRESS and from the left prefrontal cortex with PRESS and MEGAPRESS, and mGluR5 binding (BP) was assessed from PET data collected with [F]PSS232. NAC administration was associated with a significant reduction in Glx and Gln in the basal ganglia spectra, and in Glx in the frontal MEGAPRESS spectra (p < 0.05); no differences in [F]PSS232 BP were observed with NAC, although a correlation between pre-/post-treatment Glx and baseline BPnd was found. The MRS-visible Glx signal is sensitive to acute fluctuations in glutamate. The change in Glx was mostly driven by a change in Gln, lending weight to the notion that Gln can provide a proxy marker for neurotransmitter/synaptic glutamate. [F]PSS232 binding is not sensitive to acute glutamate shifts independently, but was associated with the extent of glutamate liberation upon NAC stimulation.