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Inhibition of calpain delays early muscle atrophy after rotator cuff tendon release in sheep


Ruoss, Severin; Kindt, Philipp; Oberholzer, Linus; Rohner, Marco; Jungck, Ladina; Abdel-Aziz, Sara; Fitze, Daniel; Rosskopf, Andrea B; Klein, Karina; von Rechenberg, Brigitte; Gerber, Christian; Wieser, Karl; Flück, Martin (2018). Inhibition of calpain delays early muscle atrophy after rotator cuff tendon release in sheep. Physiological Reports, 6(21):e13833.

Abstract

Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears are characterized by retraction, fat accumulation, and atrophy of the affected muscle. These features pose an intractable problem for surgical repair and subsequent recovery, and their prevention may be easier than reversal. Using an established ovine model, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of the protease calpain mitigates m. infraspinatus atrophy by preservation of the myofibers' structural anchors in the sarcolemma (the costameres). Already 2 weeks of distal tendon release led to a reduction in muscle volume (-11.6 ± 9.1 cm , P = 0.038) and a 8.3% slow-to-fast shift of the fiber area (P = 0.046), which were both entirely abolished by chronic local administration of the calpain inhibitor calpeptin alone, and in combination with sildenafil. Calpain inhibition blunted the retraction of the muscle-tendon unit by 0.8-1.0 cm (P = 0.020) compared with the control group, and prevented cleavage of the costameric protein talin. Calpain 1 and 2 protein levels increased in the medicated groups after 4 weeks, counteracting the efficacy of calpeptin. Hence atrophic changes emerged after 4 weeks despite ongoing treatment. These findings suggest that the early muscular adaptations in the specific case of RC tear in the ovine model are indistinguishable from the atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transformation observed with conventional unloading and can be prevented for 2 weeks. Concluding, calpain is a potential target to extend the temporal window for reconstruction of the ruptured RC tendon before recovery turns impossible.

Abstract

Chronic rotator cuff (RC) tears are characterized by retraction, fat accumulation, and atrophy of the affected muscle. These features pose an intractable problem for surgical repair and subsequent recovery, and their prevention may be easier than reversal. Using an established ovine model, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of the protease calpain mitigates m. infraspinatus atrophy by preservation of the myofibers' structural anchors in the sarcolemma (the costameres). Already 2 weeks of distal tendon release led to a reduction in muscle volume (-11.6 ± 9.1 cm , P = 0.038) and a 8.3% slow-to-fast shift of the fiber area (P = 0.046), which were both entirely abolished by chronic local administration of the calpain inhibitor calpeptin alone, and in combination with sildenafil. Calpain inhibition blunted the retraction of the muscle-tendon unit by 0.8-1.0 cm (P = 0.020) compared with the control group, and prevented cleavage of the costameric protein talin. Calpain 1 and 2 protein levels increased in the medicated groups after 4 weeks, counteracting the efficacy of calpeptin. Hence atrophic changes emerged after 4 weeks despite ongoing treatment. These findings suggest that the early muscular adaptations in the specific case of RC tear in the ovine model are indistinguishable from the atrophy and slow-to-fast fiber transformation observed with conventional unloading and can be prevented for 2 weeks. Concluding, calpain is a potential target to extend the temporal window for reconstruction of the ruptured RC tendon before recovery turns impossible.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Balgrist University Hospital, Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Center
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:November 2018
Deposited On:15 Nov 2018 10:40
Last Modified:24 Sep 2019 23:51
Publisher:Wiley Open Access
ISSN:2051-817X
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.14814/phy2.13833
PubMed ID:30393967

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