Urinary stones can be readily disintegrated by Holmium:YAG laser (Holmium laser lithotripsy), resulting in a mixture of small stone dust particles which will spontaneously evacuate with urine and larger residual fragments requiring mechanical retrieval. Differences between fragments and dust have not been well characterized. Also, it remains unknown how the recently introduced "Moses technology" may alter stone disintegration products. Three complementary analytical techniques have been used in this study to offer an in-depth characterization of disintegration products after in vitro Holmium laser lithotripsy: stereoscopic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dust was separated from fragments based on its floating ability in saline irrigation. Depending on initial crystalline constituents, stone dust either conserved attributes found in larger residual fragments or showed changes in crystalline organization. These included conversion of calcium oxalate dihydrate towards calcium oxalate monohydrate, changes in carbapatite spectra towards an amorphous phase, changes of magnesium ammonium phosphate towards a differing amorphous and crystalline phase and the appearance of hydroxyapatite on brushite fragments. Comparatively, "Moses technology" produced more pronounced changes. These findings provide new insights suggesting a photothermal effect occurring in Holmium laser lithotripsy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.