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Gamma-hydroxybutyrate increases brain resting-state functional connectivity of the salience network and dorsal nexus in humans


Bosch, Oliver G; Esposito, Fabrizio; Dornbierer, Dario; Havranek, Michael M; von Rotz, Robin; Kometer, Michael; Staempfli, Philipp; Quednow, Boris B; Seifritz, Erich (2018). Gamma-hydroxybutyrate increases brain resting-state functional connectivity of the salience network and dorsal nexus in humans. NeuroImage, 173:448-459.

Abstract

According to the triple network hypothesis the brain is equipped with three core neurocognitive networks: the default mode (DMN), the salience (SN), and the central executive (CEN) network. Moreover, the so called dorsal nexus, has met growing interest as it is a hub region connecting these three networks. Assessment of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of these networks enables the elucidation of drug-induced brain alterations. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB/GABA-B receptor agonist that induces a paradoxical state of mixed stimulation and sedation at moderate doses, which makes it a valuable tool to investigate neural signatures of subjective drug effects. Employing a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, we assessed the effects of GHB (35 mg/kg p. o.) in 19 healthy male subjects on DMN-, SN-, CEN-, and dorsal nexus-rsFC measured by functional magnet resonance imaging and applying independent component as well as seed-based analyses, while subjective drug effects were investigated using visual analog scales (VAS). Subjectively, GHB increased VAS ratings of a general drug effect, stimulation, and sedation. Intrinsic DMN-, and CEN-rsFC remained largely unchanged under GHB, but the drug increased SN-DMN-rsFC and SN-dorsal nexus-rsFC, while dorsal nexus-rsFC was reciprocally increased to both the SN (right anterior insula) and to the CEN (right middle frontal gyrus). Increased sedation significantly predicted the observed SN-dorsal nexus-rsFC. In conclusion, GHB generates a unique stimulant/sedative subjective state that is paralleled by a complex pattern of increased functional connectivity encompassing all three core neurocognitive networks of the brain, while increased SN-dorsal nexus-rsFC was demonstrated to be a potential signature of the sedative component of the drug effect.

Abstract

According to the triple network hypothesis the brain is equipped with three core neurocognitive networks: the default mode (DMN), the salience (SN), and the central executive (CEN) network. Moreover, the so called dorsal nexus, has met growing interest as it is a hub region connecting these three networks. Assessment of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of these networks enables the elucidation of drug-induced brain alterations. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a GHB/GABA-B receptor agonist that induces a paradoxical state of mixed stimulation and sedation at moderate doses, which makes it a valuable tool to investigate neural signatures of subjective drug effects. Employing a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, we assessed the effects of GHB (35 mg/kg p. o.) in 19 healthy male subjects on DMN-, SN-, CEN-, and dorsal nexus-rsFC measured by functional magnet resonance imaging and applying independent component as well as seed-based analyses, while subjective drug effects were investigated using visual analog scales (VAS). Subjectively, GHB increased VAS ratings of a general drug effect, stimulation, and sedation. Intrinsic DMN-, and CEN-rsFC remained largely unchanged under GHB, but the drug increased SN-DMN-rsFC and SN-dorsal nexus-rsFC, while dorsal nexus-rsFC was reciprocally increased to both the SN (right anterior insula) and to the CEN (right middle frontal gyrus). Increased sedation significantly predicted the observed SN-dorsal nexus-rsFC. In conclusion, GHB generates a unique stimulant/sedative subjective state that is paralleled by a complex pattern of increased functional connectivity encompassing all three core neurocognitive networks of the brain, while increased SN-dorsal nexus-rsFC was demonstrated to be a potential signature of the sedative component of the drug effect.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics
04 Faculty of Medicine > Neuroscience Center Zurich
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:June 2018
Deposited On:14 Nov 2018 15:46
Last Modified:15 Nov 2018 08:40
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:1053-8119
OA Status:Closed
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.03.011
PubMed ID:29524621

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Language: English
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Embargo till: 2019-07-01