The aim of the study was to clarify how lameness and its severity in dairy cows at the time of drying off will affect the milk performance and fertility in the following lactation when treated appropriately at the time of drying off. The lameness scoring and a gait assessment took place during drying off, in the 1st week after calving, as well as 2 months after calving. Each lame cow was compared with a non-lame control cow from the same farm. The milk and fertility data of the following lactation were compared with those of the previous lactation. Most of the lameness occurred in the hind limbs and was most frequently due to digital dermatitis (Mortellaro), limax, and Rusterholz sole ulcer. The mean lameness duration after treatment was 26 days (median 16 days) and was significantly longer in case of horn lesions than in skin lesions. Recurrences most often occured in the interdigital cleft region. Lameness- free control animals were often affected by heel horn erosion and digital dermatitis. In the present study, a lameness treated at the time of dry off did not have a negative effect on fertility, but on milk yield and milk fat. Treatment could not eliminate these negative effects. However, it can be hypothesized that the negative effects on these and other parameters would have been even greater than without adequate treatment.