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Evaluation of endogenous urinary biomarkers for indirect detection of urine adulteration attempts by five different chemical adulterants in mass spectrometry methods


Steuer, Andrea E; Kamber, Dominique; Kraemer, Thomas (2019). Evaluation of endogenous urinary biomarkers for indirect detection of urine adulteration attempts by five different chemical adulterants in mass spectrometry methods. Drug Testing and Analysis, 11(5):638-648.

Abstract

Reliable detection of urine adulteration attempts to circumvent positive drug testing represents a critical step for laboratories in abstinence control settings. An ideal workflow for high-throughput testing would involve simultaneous detection of adulteration attempts in the very same run with drug detection. Monitoring of degraded or oxidized endogenous urinary compounds as indirect markers has been previously evaluated for that purpose exemplified for the adulterant potassium nitrite (KNO2 ). Fifteen, previously identified endogenous markers should now be evaluated for their general applicability to detect adulteration attempts for the following adulterants: hypochlorite-based bleach (NaOCl), peroxidase and peroxide (H2 O2 ), pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) and iodine (I2 ). Initial experiments revealed similar results for the tested adulterants regarding degradation of indolylacryloylglycine (IAG), uric acid (UA) or UA derivatives. 5-Hydroxyisourate (HIU), the oxidation product of UA, was however only formed by KNO2 , PCC and H2 O2 . Amino acids showed larger adulterant-dependent differences. All reactions were shown to be influenced by the adulterant concentration and the urinary pH with large variances depending on compound and adulterant. Except for HIU/PCC, all markers were stable within +/- 30% variation for all adulterants at -20 °C. Receiver operating characteristics indicated best sensitivity and specificity over all adulterants for IAG (specificity 0.9, sensitivity 1.0) and UA (specificity 1.0, sensitivity 0.9). HIU gave best results for KNO2 , PCC and H2 O2 and N-acetylneuraminic acid for PCC and H2 O2 , respectively. When integrating a limited number of targets into existing screening methods monitoring of UA, IAG, N-acetylneuraminic acid and HIU is recommended.

Abstract

Reliable detection of urine adulteration attempts to circumvent positive drug testing represents a critical step for laboratories in abstinence control settings. An ideal workflow for high-throughput testing would involve simultaneous detection of adulteration attempts in the very same run with drug detection. Monitoring of degraded or oxidized endogenous urinary compounds as indirect markers has been previously evaluated for that purpose exemplified for the adulterant potassium nitrite (KNO2 ). Fifteen, previously identified endogenous markers should now be evaluated for their general applicability to detect adulteration attempts for the following adulterants: hypochlorite-based bleach (NaOCl), peroxidase and peroxide (H2 O2 ), pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) and iodine (I2 ). Initial experiments revealed similar results for the tested adulterants regarding degradation of indolylacryloylglycine (IAG), uric acid (UA) or UA derivatives. 5-Hydroxyisourate (HIU), the oxidation product of UA, was however only formed by KNO2 , PCC and H2 O2 . Amino acids showed larger adulterant-dependent differences. All reactions were shown to be influenced by the adulterant concentration and the urinary pH with large variances depending on compound and adulterant. Except for HIU/PCC, all markers were stable within +/- 30% variation for all adulterants at -20 °C. Receiver operating characteristics indicated best sensitivity and specificity over all adulterants for IAG (specificity 0.9, sensitivity 1.0) and UA (specificity 1.0, sensitivity 0.9). HIU gave best results for KNO2 , PCC and H2 O2 and N-acetylneuraminic acid for PCC and H2 O2 , respectively. When integrating a limited number of targets into existing screening methods monitoring of UA, IAG, N-acetylneuraminic acid and HIU is recommended.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Institute of Legal Medicine
Dewey Decimal Classification:340 Law
610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:Analytical Chemistry, Spectroscopy, Pharmaceutical Science, Environmental Chemistry
Language:English
Date:1 May 2019
Deposited On:22 Nov 2018 09:16
Last Modified:27 Apr 2019 01:02
Publisher:Wiley-Blackwell Publishing, Inc.
ISSN:1942-7603
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.2539
PubMed ID:30408836

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