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Structure of the entanglement entropy of (3+1)-dimensional gapped phases of matter


Zheng, Yunqin; He, Huan; Bradlyn, Barry; Cano, Jennifer; Neupert, Titus; Bernevig, B Andrei (2018). Structure of the entanglement entropy of (3+1)-dimensional gapped phases of matter. Physical review. B, 97(19):195118.

Abstract

We study the entanglement entropy of gapped phases of matter in three spatial dimensions. We focus in particular on size-independent contributions to the entropy across entanglement surfaces of arbitrary topologies. We show that for low energy fixed-point theories, the constant part of the entanglement entropy across any surface can be reduced to a linear combination of the entropies across a sphere and a torus. We first derive our results using strong sub-additivity inequalities along with assumptions about the entanglement entropy of fixed-point models, and identify the topological contribution by considering the renormalization group flow; in this way we give an explicit definition of topological entanglement entropy Stopo in (3+1)D, which sharpens previous results. We illustrate our results using several concrete examples and independent calculations, and show adding “twist” terms to the Lagrangian can change Stopo in (3+1)D. For the generalized Walker-Wang models, we find that the ground state degeneracy on a 3-torus is given by exp(−3Stopo[T2]) in terms of the topological entanglement entropy across a 2-torus. We conjecture that a similar relationship holds for Abelian theories in (d+1) dimensional spacetime, with the ground state degeneracy on the d-torus given by exp(−dStopo[Td−1]).

Abstract

We study the entanglement entropy of gapped phases of matter in three spatial dimensions. We focus in particular on size-independent contributions to the entropy across entanglement surfaces of arbitrary topologies. We show that for low energy fixed-point theories, the constant part of the entanglement entropy across any surface can be reduced to a linear combination of the entropies across a sphere and a torus. We first derive our results using strong sub-additivity inequalities along with assumptions about the entanglement entropy of fixed-point models, and identify the topological contribution by considering the renormalization group flow; in this way we give an explicit definition of topological entanglement entropy Stopo in (3+1)D, which sharpens previous results. We illustrate our results using several concrete examples and independent calculations, and show adding “twist” terms to the Lagrangian can change Stopo in (3+1)D. For the generalized Walker-Wang models, we find that the ground state degeneracy on a 3-torus is given by exp(−3Stopo[T2]) in terms of the topological entanglement entropy across a 2-torus. We conjecture that a similar relationship holds for Abelian theories in (d+1) dimensional spacetime, with the ground state degeneracy on the d-torus given by exp(−dStopo[Td−1]).

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:07 Faculty of Science > Physics Institute
Dewey Decimal Classification:530 Physics
Scopus Subject Areas:Physical Sciences > Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Physical Sciences > Condensed Matter Physics
Language:English
Date:10 May 2018
Deposited On:30 Nov 2018 14:23
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 08:12
Publisher:American Physical Society
ISSN:2469-9950
OA Status:Hybrid
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevb.97.195118

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