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The Calcaneal Crescent in Patients With and Without Plantar Fasciitis: An Ankle MRI Study


Finkenstaedt, Tim; Siriwanarangsun, Palanan; Statum, Sheronda; Biswas, Reni; Anderson, Karen E; Bae, Won C; Chung, Christine B (2018). The Calcaneal Crescent in Patients With and Without Plantar Fasciitis: An Ankle MRI Study. American Journal of Roentgenology, 211(5):1075-1082.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The bundled, crescent-shaped trabeculae within the calcaneal tuberosity-which we term and refer to here as the "calcaneal crescent"-may represent a structural adaption to the prevailing forces. Given Wolff law, we hypothesized that the calcaneal crescent would be more robust in patients with plantar fasciitis, a syndrome in part characterized by overload of the Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system, than in patients without plantar fasciitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS MR images of 37 patients (27 women and 10 men; mean age ± SD, 51 ± 13 years; mean body mass index [BMI, weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 26.8 ± 6.3) referred for workup of foot or ankle pain were retrospectively evaluated by two blinded readers in this study. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A, which was composed of 15 subjects without clinical signs or MRI findings of Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system abnormalities, or group B, which was composed of 22 patients with findings of plantar fasciitis. The thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the Achilles tendon, calcaneal crescent, and plantar fascia were measured on proton density (PD)-weighted MR images. The entire crescent volume was manually measured using OsiriX software on consecutive sagittal PD-weighted images. Additionally, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) as a surrogate marker for trabecular density and the mean thickness of the calcaneal crescent were determined on PD-weighted MR images. The groupwise difference in the morphologic measurements were evaluated using ANOVA with BMI as a covariate. Partial correlation was used to assess the relationships of measurements for the group with plantar fasciitis (group B). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics were performed. RESULTS Patients with plantar fasciitis had a greater CSA and volume of the calcaneal crescent and had lower CNR (i.e., denser trabeculae) than those without Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system abnormalities (CSA, 100.2 vs 73.7 mm, p = 0.019; volume, 3.06 vs 1.99 cm, p = 0.006; CNR, -28.40 vs -38.10, p = 0.009). Interreader agreement was excellent (ICC = 0.85-0.99). CONCLUSION In patients with plantar fasciitis, the calcaneal crescent is enlarged compared with those without abnormalities of the Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system. An enlarged and trabeculae-rich calcaneal crescent may potentially indicate that abnormally increased forces are being exerted onto the Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE The bundled, crescent-shaped trabeculae within the calcaneal tuberosity-which we term and refer to here as the "calcaneal crescent"-may represent a structural adaption to the prevailing forces. Given Wolff law, we hypothesized that the calcaneal crescent would be more robust in patients with plantar fasciitis, a syndrome in part characterized by overload of the Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system, than in patients without plantar fasciitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS MR images of 37 patients (27 women and 10 men; mean age ± SD, 51 ± 13 years; mean body mass index [BMI, weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 26.8 ± 6.3) referred for workup of foot or ankle pain were retrospectively evaluated by two blinded readers in this study. Patients were assigned to two groups: group A, which was composed of 15 subjects without clinical signs or MRI findings of Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system abnormalities, or group B, which was composed of 22 patients with findings of plantar fasciitis. The thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the Achilles tendon, calcaneal crescent, and plantar fascia were measured on proton density (PD)-weighted MR images. The entire crescent volume was manually measured using OsiriX software on consecutive sagittal PD-weighted images. Additionally, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) as a surrogate marker for trabecular density and the mean thickness of the calcaneal crescent were determined on PD-weighted MR images. The groupwise difference in the morphologic measurements were evaluated using ANOVA with BMI as a covariate. Partial correlation was used to assess the relationships of measurements for the group with plantar fasciitis (group B). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics were performed. RESULTS Patients with plantar fasciitis had a greater CSA and volume of the calcaneal crescent and had lower CNR (i.e., denser trabeculae) than those without Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system abnormalities (CSA, 100.2 vs 73.7 mm, p = 0.019; volume, 3.06 vs 1.99 cm, p = 0.006; CNR, -28.40 vs -38.10, p = 0.009). Interreader agreement was excellent (ICC = 0.85-0.99). CONCLUSION In patients with plantar fasciitis, the calcaneal crescent is enlarged compared with those without abnormalities of the Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system. An enlarged and trabeculae-rich calcaneal crescent may potentially indicate that abnormally increased forces are being exerted onto the Achilles tendon-calcaneal crescent-plantar fascia system.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Clinic for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Scopus Subject Areas:Health Sciences > Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging
Language:English
Date:November 2018
Deposited On:30 Nov 2018 15:04
Last Modified:29 Jul 2020 08:12
Publisher:American Roentgen Ray Society
ISSN:0361-803X
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.17.19399
PubMed ID:30160979

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