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Myositis and neuromuscular side-effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors


Abstract

AIM To characterise clinical presentation, laboratory and histopathologic characteristics and assess the treatment and outcome of neuromuscular side-effects of checkpoint therapy. METHODS The side-effect registry and the institutional database from ten skin cancer centres were queried for reports on myositis and neuromuscular side-effects induced by checkpoint inhibitors. In total, 38 patients treated with ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab for metastatic skin cancer were evaluated and characterised. RESULTS Myositis was the most frequent neuromuscular adverse event. In 32% of cases, myositis was complicated by concomitant myocarditis. Furthermore, cases of isolated myocarditis, myasthenia gravis, polymyalgia rheumatica, radiculoneuropathy and asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation were reported. The onset of side-effects ranged from the first week of treatment to 115 weeks after the start of therapy. Most of the cases were severe (49% grade III-IV Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events), and there were two fatalities (5%) due to myositis and myositis with concomitant myocarditis. Only half of the cases (50%) completely resolved, whereas the rest was either ongoing or had sequelae. Steroids were given in 80% of the resolved cases and in 40% of the unresolved cases. CONCLUSION Immune-mediated neuromuscular side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors greatly vary in presentation and differ from their idiopathic counterparts. These side-effects can be life threatening and may result in permanent sequelae. Occurrence of these side-effects must be taken into consideration for patient information, especially when considering adjuvant immunotherapy with anti-programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies and monitoring, which should include regular surveillance of creatine kinase.

Abstract

AIM To characterise clinical presentation, laboratory and histopathologic characteristics and assess the treatment and outcome of neuromuscular side-effects of checkpoint therapy. METHODS The side-effect registry and the institutional database from ten skin cancer centres were queried for reports on myositis and neuromuscular side-effects induced by checkpoint inhibitors. In total, 38 patients treated with ipilimumab, tremelimumab, nivolumab and pembrolizumab for metastatic skin cancer were evaluated and characterised. RESULTS Myositis was the most frequent neuromuscular adverse event. In 32% of cases, myositis was complicated by concomitant myocarditis. Furthermore, cases of isolated myocarditis, myasthenia gravis, polymyalgia rheumatica, radiculoneuropathy and asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation were reported. The onset of side-effects ranged from the first week of treatment to 115 weeks after the start of therapy. Most of the cases were severe (49% grade III-IV Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events), and there were two fatalities (5%) due to myositis and myositis with concomitant myocarditis. Only half of the cases (50%) completely resolved, whereas the rest was either ongoing or had sequelae. Steroids were given in 80% of the resolved cases and in 40% of the unresolved cases. CONCLUSION Immune-mediated neuromuscular side-effects of checkpoint inhibitors greatly vary in presentation and differ from their idiopathic counterparts. These side-effects can be life threatening and may result in permanent sequelae. Occurrence of these side-effects must be taken into consideration for patient information, especially when considering adjuvant immunotherapy with anti-programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) antibodies and monitoring, which should include regular surveillance of creatine kinase.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > University Hospital Zurich > Dermatology Clinic
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:16 November 2018
Deposited On:30 Nov 2018 16:46
Last Modified:30 Nov 2018 16:49
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0959-8049
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.09.033
PubMed ID:30453170

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