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Cardioprotection by cardiac progenitor cell-secreted exosomes: role of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A


Barile, Lucio; Cervio, Elisabetta; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Milano, Giuseppina; Ciullo, Alessandra; Biemmi, Vanessa; Bolis, Sara; Altomare, Claudia; Matteucci, Marco; Di Silvestre, Dario; Brambilla, Francesca; Fertig, Tudor Emanuel; Torre, Tiziano; Demertzis, Stefanos; Mauri, Pierluigi; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe (2018). Cardioprotection by cardiac progenitor cell-secreted exosomes: role of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Cardiovascular Research, 114(7):992-1005.

Abstract

Aims ell therapy trials using cardiac-resident progenitor cells (CPCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMCs) in patients after myocardial infarction have provided encouraging results. Exosomes, nanosized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, figure prominently in the bioactivities of these cells. However, a head-to-head comparison of exosomes from the two cell types has not been performed yet.
Methods and results PCs and BMCs were derived from cardiac atrial appendage specimens and sternal bone marrow, respectively, from patients (n = 20; age, 69.9 ± 10.9) undergoing heart surgery for aortic valve disease and/or coronary artery disease. Vesicles were purified from cell conditioned media by centrifugation/filtration and ultracentrifugation. Vesicle preparations were predominantly composed of exosomes based on particle size and marker expression (CD9, CD63, CD81, Alix, and TSG-101). CPC-secreted exosomes prevented staurosporine-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis more effectively than BMC-secreted exosomes. In vivo, CPC-secreted exosomes reduced scar size and improved ventricular function after permanent coronary occlusion in rats more efficiently than BMC-secreted exosomes. Both types of exosomes stimulated blood vessel formation. CPC-secreted exosomes, but not BMC-derived exosomes, enhanced ventricular function after ischaemia/reperfusion. Proteomics profiling identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as one of the most highly enriched proteins in CPC vs. BMC exosomes. The active form of PAPP-A was detected on CPC exosome surfaces. These vesicles released insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) via proteolytic cleavage of IGF-binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), resulting in IGF-1 receptor activation, intracellular Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, decreased caspase activation, and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PAPP-A knockdown prevented CPC exosome-mediated cardioprotection both in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusion hese results suggest that CPC-secreted exosomes may be more cardioprotective than BMC-secreted exosomes, and that PAPP-A-mediated IGF-1 release may explain the benefit. They illustrate a general mechanism whereby exosomes may function via an active protease on their surface, which releases a ligand in proximity to the transmembrane receptor bound by the ligand.

Abstract

Aims ell therapy trials using cardiac-resident progenitor cells (CPCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (BMCs) in patients after myocardial infarction have provided encouraging results. Exosomes, nanosized extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin, figure prominently in the bioactivities of these cells. However, a head-to-head comparison of exosomes from the two cell types has not been performed yet.
Methods and results PCs and BMCs were derived from cardiac atrial appendage specimens and sternal bone marrow, respectively, from patients (n = 20; age, 69.9 ± 10.9) undergoing heart surgery for aortic valve disease and/or coronary artery disease. Vesicles were purified from cell conditioned media by centrifugation/filtration and ultracentrifugation. Vesicle preparations were predominantly composed of exosomes based on particle size and marker expression (CD9, CD63, CD81, Alix, and TSG-101). CPC-secreted exosomes prevented staurosporine-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis more effectively than BMC-secreted exosomes. In vivo, CPC-secreted exosomes reduced scar size and improved ventricular function after permanent coronary occlusion in rats more efficiently than BMC-secreted exosomes. Both types of exosomes stimulated blood vessel formation. CPC-secreted exosomes, but not BMC-derived exosomes, enhanced ventricular function after ischaemia/reperfusion. Proteomics profiling identified pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) as one of the most highly enriched proteins in CPC vs. BMC exosomes. The active form of PAPP-A was detected on CPC exosome surfaces. These vesicles released insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) via proteolytic cleavage of IGF-binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4), resulting in IGF-1 receptor activation, intracellular Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, decreased caspase activation, and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PAPP-A knockdown prevented CPC exosome-mediated cardioprotection both in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusion hese results suggest that CPC-secreted exosomes may be more cardioprotective than BMC-secreted exosomes, and that PAPP-A-mediated IGF-1 release may explain the benefit. They illustrate a general mechanism whereby exosomes may function via an active protease on their surface, which releases a ligand in proximity to the transmembrane receptor bound by the ligand.

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Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:04 Faculty of Medicine > Cardiocentro Ticino
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Language:English
Date:1 June 2018
Deposited On:18 Feb 2019 12:18
Last Modified:19 Feb 2019 08:31
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0008-6363
OA Status:Closed
Free access at:Publisher DOI. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy055
PubMed ID:29518183

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