The pharmacokinetics of ketamine and norketamine enantiomers after administration of intravenous (IV) racemic ketamine (R-/S-ketamine; 2.2 mg/kg) or S-ketamine (1.1 mg/kg) to five ponies sedated with IV xylazine (1.1 mg/kg) were compared. The time intervals to assume sternal and standing positions were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 13 min after ketamine administration. Arterial blood gases were evaluated 5 min after ketamine injection. Plasma concentrations of ketamine and norketamine enantiomers were determined by capillary electrophoresis and were evaluated by non-linear least square regression analysis applying a monocompartmental model. The first-order elimination rate constant was significantly higher and elimination half-life and mean residence time were lower for S-ketamine after S-ketamine compared to R-/S-ketamine administration. The maximum concentration of S-norketamine was higher after S-ketamine administration. Time to standing position was significantly diminished after S-ketamine compared to R-/S-ketamine. Blood gases showed low-degree hypoxaemia and hypercarbia.