A one-year-old healthy sheep received an implant stenting the mural ('posterior') leaflet of the mitral valve. The experiment was authorized by the Cantonal Ethical Committee. The surgery was performed on the open, beating heart during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Management of anaesthesia was based on isoflurane with mechanical intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) of the lungs, combined with intercostal nerve blocks and intravenous fentanyl and lidocaine. Marked cardiovascular depression occurred towards the end of CPB time and required high doses of dopamine, dobutamine, lidocaine and ephedrine to allow for weaning off the CPB pump. Moreover, severe pulmonary dysfunction developed when IPPV was re-initiated after CPB. Hypoxaemia persisted throughout the recovery from general anaesthesia. Multiple organ failure developed gradually during the three postoperative days, leading to euthanasia of the animal. As described in this case, marked lung injury associated with some degree of failure of other vital organs may occur in sheep after CPB. Intraoperative cardiorespiratory complications when weaning-off may indicate the development of 'post-pump syndrome'.