AIMS Anterior lumbar interbody fusion procedures (ALIF) and total disc replacement (TDR) with anterior exposure of the lumbar spine entail a risk of a vascular injury and dysfunction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves due to disturbance of the inferior and superior hypogastric plexus. While retrograde ejaculation is a known complication of the anterior spinal approach in males, post-operative sexual as well as urinary function in females has not yet been thoroughly investigated and was hence the aim of this study. METHODS Fifteen female patients documented their sexual and urinary function preoperatively, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively, using the validated questionnaires FSFI (Female Sexual Function Index) and ICIQ (International Consultation of Incontinence Questionnaire). Randomization tests were used to statistically analyze expectation values over time (two-sided, P < 0.05). RESULTS While no statistically significant change in the total FSFI score occurred over time, a significant increase in FSFI desire score was noted between preoperative (2.95 ± 0.8) and 6 months follow-up (3.51 ± 0.6, P = 0.02). Urinary continence remained unchanged over time. CONCLUSION In summary, ALIF and lumbar TDR do not seem to negatively influence sexual and urinary function in females. In contrast, increased sexual desire was noted, likely secondary to post-surgical pain relief.