STUDY DESIGN Observational cohort study. OBJECTIVE To investigate survival and life expectancy after NTSCI in Switzerland according to etiology. SETTING Specialized rehabilitation centers in Switzerland. METHODS Longitudinal data from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) medical records study were used. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and life expectancies were estimated using flexible parametric survival modeling. RESULTS One thousand four hundred and fifty individuals were admitted to first rehabilitation for NTSCI between 1990 and 2011, contributing 6137 cumulative person-years at risk and 528 deaths. With reference to persons with a degenerative disc disorder, the HR for mortality in individuals with NTSCIs from infections was 1.42 (95% CI 0.99-2.04), while risk in those with NTSCIs from vascular disorders was 1.28 (95% CI 0.97-1.68). Mortality risk was most pronounced in individuals with NTSCIs from malignant neoplasms (HR 6.32, 95% CI 4.79-8.34). Exemplified for males with an attained age of 60 years, a malignant etiology was associated with 1.7 life years remaining (LYR), as compared to 10.1 LYR for non-malignant etiologies. Males with an attained age of 60 years and a degenerative disc etiology were estimated to have 12.9 LYR. CONCLUSIONS This study contributes an evidence base for risk factors of mortality after NTSCI, reducing a considerable knowledge gap in survival after NTSCI. Survival and life expectancy estimates were highly differential between etiological groups, indicating a need for a heterogeneous clinical approach and dynamic health-care provisions for this growing population.