Transrectal Doppler ultrasound was used for the noninvasive investigation of uterine blood flow in three cows during pregnancy. The uterine arteries ipsi and contralateral to the conceptus were scanned monthly. Blood flow was reflected by the following parameters: resistance index (RI), time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV), diameter of the vessel (D) and the volume of blood flow (VOL). RI values were negatively correlated to all other blood flow parameters (P < 0.01). Positive correlations occurred between TAMV, D and VOL (P < 0.0001). While blood flow parameters did not differ between cows (P > 0.05), the month of gestation showed a positive effect on RI and negative effects on TAMV, D and VOL (P < 0.0001). The RI was lower and TAMV, D and VOL higher in the uterine artery ipsilateral to the conceptus (P < 0.05). RI values decreased continuously during the first 8 months of gestation and remained from then until birth at a relatively constant level. While TAMV increased especially in two-thirds of pregnancy, a relatively uniform rise of D was noticed. VOL increased exponentially with stage of gestation. The results show that transrectal Doppler sonography is a suitable, noninvasive method for the examination of uterine blood flow during pregnancy in cows. Using this technique it might be possible in the future to determine the role of uterine blood flow in cows at the risk of abortion.