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Co-infection with feline retrovirus is related to changes in immunological parameters of cats with sporotrichosis


Miranda, Luisa Helena Monteiro de; Meli, Marina L; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Novacco, Marilisa; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Sugiarto, Sarah; Reis, Érica Guerino dos; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina (2018). Co-infection with feline retrovirus is related to changes in immunological parameters of cats with sporotrichosis. PLoS ONE, 13(11):e0207644.

Abstract

Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis is frequently severe and often correlated to zoonotic transmission. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) cause immunodeficiency in cats; no association has been identified with critical cases of sporotrichosis. Moreover, the cytokine profile in Sporothrix-infected cats and a potential impact of retrovirus co-infections on their immunity is unknown. This study assessed immunological parameters in cats with sporotrichosis with and without FIV or FeLV co-infection. FeLV infection was detected by antigen ELISA and by provirus PCR. FIV infection was investigated through ELISA and Western blot. Cytokine transcription (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α) was quantified using RT-qPCR and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4, CD8, CD5 and CD21) were assessed by flow cytometry. Thirty cats with sporotrichosis were recruited to the study, including three FIV-positive and five FeLV-positive (progressive infection) cats. One cat with regressive FeLV infection was excluded from statistics. In comparison to retrovirus-negative cats, FIV-positive cats and FeLV-positive cats had higher IL-10 levels, FeLV-positive cats had lower IL-4 levels and FIV-positive cats had lower IL-12 levels and a lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Remarkably, all cats with poor general condition were FeLV (progressive infection) or FIV-positive, but the retrovirus status was not associated with the sporotrichosis treatment length or outcome. The immunological changes and the more severe clinical presentation observed in cats with retrovirus co-infections encourage future prospective studies that address the impact of these changes on prognostic determinants of feline sporotrichosis and the development of new therapy strategies that control disease spread.

Abstract

Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis is frequently severe and often correlated to zoonotic transmission. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) cause immunodeficiency in cats; no association has been identified with critical cases of sporotrichosis. Moreover, the cytokine profile in Sporothrix-infected cats and a potential impact of retrovirus co-infections on their immunity is unknown. This study assessed immunological parameters in cats with sporotrichosis with and without FIV or FeLV co-infection. FeLV infection was detected by antigen ELISA and by provirus PCR. FIV infection was investigated through ELISA and Western blot. Cytokine transcription (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α) was quantified using RT-qPCR and lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4, CD8, CD5 and CD21) were assessed by flow cytometry. Thirty cats with sporotrichosis were recruited to the study, including three FIV-positive and five FeLV-positive (progressive infection) cats. One cat with regressive FeLV infection was excluded from statistics. In comparison to retrovirus-negative cats, FIV-positive cats and FeLV-positive cats had higher IL-10 levels, FeLV-positive cats had lower IL-4 levels and FIV-positive cats had lower IL-12 levels and a lower CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Remarkably, all cats with poor general condition were FeLV (progressive infection) or FIV-positive, but the retrovirus status was not associated with the sporotrichosis treatment length or outcome. The immunological changes and the more severe clinical presentation observed in cats with retrovirus co-infections encourage future prospective studies that address the impact of these changes on prognostic determinants of feline sporotrichosis and the development of new therapy strategies that control disease spread.

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Additional indexing

Item Type:Journal Article, refereed, original work
Communities & Collections:05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Veterinary Clinic > Department of Clinical Diagnostics and Services
05 Vetsuisse Faculty > Center for Clinical Studies
Dewey Decimal Classification:610 Medicine & health
Uncontrolled Keywords:General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology, General Agricultural and Biological Sciences, General Medicine
Language:English
Date:30 November 2018
Deposited On:05 Dec 2018 11:08
Last Modified:14 Feb 2019 08:16
Publisher:Public Library of Science (PLoS)
ISSN:1932-6203
OA Status:Gold
Free access at:PubMed ID. An embargo period may apply.
Publisher DOI:https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0207644
PubMed ID:30500849

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